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<< Evidence-Based Guidelines For Evaluation And Antimicrobial Therapy For Common Emergency Department Infections

References

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available.

  1. Gaieski DF, Mikkelsen ME, Band RA, et al. Impact of time to antibiotics on survival in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in whom early goal-directed therapy was initiated in the emergency department. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(4):1045-1053. (Retrospective single-center cohort study; 261 patients)
  2. Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft-tissue infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(10):1373-1406. (Guideline)
  3. Niska R, Bhuiya F, Xu J. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2007 Emergency Department Summary. National health statistics reports, no. 26. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. (National survey report)
  4. Safdar N, Handelsman J, Maki DG. Does combination antimicrobial therapy reduce mortality in gram-negative bacteremia? A meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4(8):519-527. (Meta-analysis; 5 prospective cohort studies, 2 prospective randomized trials, 10 retrospective cohort studies)
  5. Micek ST, Welch EC, Khan J, et al. Empiric combination antibiotic therapy is associated with improved outcome against sepsis due to gram-negative bacteria: a retrospective analysis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54(5):1742-1748. (Retrospective single center cohort study; 760 patients)
  6. Mouton JW. Combination therapy as a tool to prevent emergence of bacterial resistance. Infection. 1999;27(Suppl 2):S24-S28. (Review)
  7. Wu YL, Scott EM, Po AL, et al. Ability of azlocillin and tobramycin in combination to delay or prevent resistance development in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999;44(3):389-392. (Observational; 8 isolates)
  8. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA. “Antibacterial Agents.” Medical Microbiology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, 2009. (Textbook)
  9. Gernsheimer J, Hllibczuk V, Bartniczuk, D, et al. Antibiotics in the ED: how to avoid the common mistake of treating not wisely, but too well. Emergency Medicine Practice. 2005:7(4):1-32. (Review)
  10. Arias E, Smith BL. Deaths: preliminary data for 2001. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2003;51(5):1-44. (National survey report)
  11. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare and Medicaid statistical supplement, 1995. US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Care Financing Administration. Health Care Financ Rev Stat Suppl. 1995;1-388. (National statistics report)
  12. The Joint Commission. Specifications manual for national hospital quality measures. Available at: http://www.jointcommission. org/performance_measurement.aspx. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
  13. American Thoracic Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171(14):388-416. (Guideline)
  14. Kollef MH, Shorr A, Tabak YP, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of healthcare-associated pneumonia: results from a large US database of culture-positive pneumonia. Chest. 2005;128:3854-3862. (Retrospective multicenter cohort; 4543 patients)
  15. Hiramatsu K, Niederman MS. Healthcare-associated pneumonia: a new therapeutic paradigm. Chest. 2005;128:3784-3787. (Review)
  16. Nazarian DJ, Eddy OL, Lukens TW, et al. ACEP Clinical Policies Subcommittee. Clinical policy: critical issues in the management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with community-acquired pneumonia. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;54(5):704-731. (Guideline)
  17. Niederman MS, McCombs JS, Unger AN, et al. The cost of treating community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Ther. 1998;20:820-837. (Retrospective)
  18. National Institutes of Health. The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Advisory Board 1990 long-range plan—window on the 21st century. J Urol. 145(3):568-593.
  19. David RD, DeBlieux PM. Press R. Rational antibiotic treatment of outpatient genitourinary infections in a changing environment. Am J Med. 2005;118(Suppl)7A:7S-13S. (Review)
  20. Abrahamian FM, Moran GJ, Talan DA. Urinary tract infections in the emergency department. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22(1):73-87. (Review)
  21. Infectious Diseases Society of America, European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. CID 2011: 52(5):e103-e120. (Guideline)
  22. Nicolle LE, AMMI Canada Guidelines Committee. Complicated urinary tract infection in adults. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2005;16(6):349-360. (Guideline)
  23. Patterson TF, Andriole VT. Bacteriuria in pregnancy. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1987;1:807–822. (Review)
  24. Christensen B. Which antibiotics are appropriate for treating bacteriuria in pregnancy? J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000;46(suppl 1):29-34. (Review)
  25. Mulholland SG, Liu H. Appropriate antibiotic treatment of genitourinary infections in hospitalized patients. Am J Med. 2005; 118 (7A); 14S-20S.
  26. Rubin RH, Shapiro ED, Andriole VT, et al. Evaluation of new anti-infective drugs for the treatment of urinary tract infection. Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Food and Drug Administration. Clin Infect Dis.1992;15(suppl 1):216-217. (Guideline)
  27. Ramakrishnan K, Scheid D. Diagnosis and management of acute pyelonephritis in adults. Am Fam Phys. 2005;71(5):933-942. (Review)
  28. McMurray BR, Wrenn KD, Wright SW. Usefulness of blood cultures in pyelonephritis. Am J Emerg Med.1997;15:137-140. (Retrospective chart review; 338 patients)
  29. Velasco M, et al. Blood cultures for women with uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis: are they necessary? Clin Infec Dis. 2003;37:1127-1130. (Prospective cohort study; 583 patients)
  30. Bass PF III, Jarvis JA, Mitchell CK. Urinary tract infections. Prim Care. 2003;30(1):41-61, v-vi. (Review)
  31. Angel JL, O’Brien WF, Finan MA, et al. Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy: a prospective study of oral versus intravenous antibiotic therapy. Obstet Gynecol.1990;76:28-32. (Prospective randomized study; 90 patients)
  32. Millar LK, Wing DA, Paul RH, Grimes DA. Outpatient treatment of pyelonephritis in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;86(4 Pt 1):560-564. (Randomized controlled trial; 120 patients)
  33. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Antimicrobial therapy for obstetric patients. ACOG educational bulletin 245. 1998; Washington, DC. (Guideline)
  34. Vazquez JC, Abalos E. Treatments for symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;19(1):CD002256. (Systematic review; 10 studies, 1125 patients)
  35. Millar LK, Cox SM. Urinary tract infections complicating pregnancy. Infect Dis Clin North Am.1997;11(1):13-26. (Review)
  36. Schnarr J, Small F. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Invest. 2008;38(Suppl 2):50-57. (Review)
  37. Le J, Briggs GG, McKeown A, et al. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38(10):1692-1701. (Review)
  38. Brun-Buisson C, Doyon F, Carlet J, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults: a multicenter prospective study in intensive care units. French ICU Group for Severe Sepsis. JAMA. 1995;274:968-974. (Prospective cohort study; 11,828 patients)
  39. Malangoni MA. Evaluation and management of tertiary peritonitis. Am Surg. 2000;66:157-161. (Review)
  40. Klevens RM, Morrison MA, Nadle J, et al. Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States. JAMA. 2007;298:1763-1771. (Surveillance; 8987 cases)
  41. Doris AS, Moineddin R, Kellenberger CJ, et al. US or CT for diagnosis of appendicitis in children and adults? A meta-analysis. Radiology. 2006;241:83-94. (Meta-analysis; 26 studies in children, 31 studies in adults)
  42. Hersh AL, Chambers HF, Maselli JH, et al. National trends in ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescribing for skin and soft-tissue infections. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(14):1585-1591. (National statistics report)
  43. Moran GJ, Krishnadasan A, Gorwitz RJ, et al. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(7):666-674. (Observational; 422 patients)
  44. Pallin DJ, Egan DJ, Pelletier AJ, et al. Increased US emergency department visits for skin and soft-tissue infections, and changes in antibiotic choices, during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;51(3):291-298. (National statistics report)
  45. Liu C, Bayer A, Cosgrove SE, et al. Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(3)e18-e55. (Guideline)
  46. Nassisi D. Emergency department infections in the era of community-acquired MRSA. Emergency Medicine Practice. 2010:12(10):1-26. (Guideline)
  47. Abrahamian FM, Talan DA, Moran GJ. Management of skin and soft-tissue infections in the emergency department. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22(1):89-116, vi. (Review)
  48. Wong CH, Khin LW, Heng KS, et al. The LRINEC (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis) score: a tool for distinguishing necrotizing fasciitis from other soft tissue infections. Crit Care Med. 2004;32(7):1535-1541. (Retrospective observational study, 314 patients; validation cohort, 140 patients)
  49. Wong CH, Khin LW. Clinical relevance of the LRINEC (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis) score for assessment of early necrotizing fasciitis. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(7):1677. (Letter)
  50. Wallin TR, Hern HG, Frazee BW. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008;26(2):431-455, ix.
  51. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Sande M. The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy, Web Edition. http://webedition.sanfordguide.com. Accessed December 9, 2011. (Online database)
  52. Bartlett JG, Auwaerter PG, Pham P. Johns Hopkins POC-IT Center ABX Guide. http://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/ub. Accessed December 9. 2011. (Online database)
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