<< Ballistic Injuries In The Emergency Department (Trauma CME)


TOC Will Appear Here



Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Xu J, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, et al. Deaths: final data for 2007. National Vital Statistics Reports (CDC); 58(19):11. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. (Surveillance data)
  2. Jandial R, Reichwage B, Levy M, et al. Ballistics for the neurosurgeon. Neurosurgery. 2008; 62(2):472-480. (Review article)
  3. Fackler ML. The wound profile and the human body: damage pattern correlation. Wound Ballistics Rev.1994;1:12-19. (Review article)
  4. Maiden N. Historical overview of wound ballistics research. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2009;5(2):85-89. (Review article)
  5. Bartlett C. Clinical update: gunshot wound ballistics. Clin Orthop and Related Research. 2003; 408:28-56. (Review Article)
  6. Santucci R, Chang Y. Ballistics for physicians: myths about wound ballistics and gunshot injuries. J Urol. 2004;171:1408-1414. (Review article)
  7. Richards, JR. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS®): necessary for emergency physicians? Eur J Emerg Med. 2000;7(3):207-210. (Survey; 26 participants)
  8. Ordog, GJ, Wasserberger J, Balasubraminum S. Wound ballistics: theory and practice. Ann Emerg Med. 1984;13(12):1113-1122. (Review article)
  9. Yoganandan N, Pintar FA, Kumaresan S, et al. Dynamic analysis of penetrating trauma. J Trauma.1997;42(2):266-272. (Prospective experimental protocol)
  10. Bellamy RF, Zajtchuk R. The evolution of wound ballistics: a brief history. Conventional warfare: ballistic, blast, and burn injury. Textbook of Military Medicine. Office of the Surgeon General at TMM, Center of Excellence in Military Medical Research and Eductaion. 1998;89. (Textbook chapter)
  11. Wilson JM, Wound ballistics. West J Med. 1977;127:49-54. (Review article)
  12. Ammunition page. Texas Parks & Wildlife Web site. Available at: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/learning/hunter_education/homestudy/ammunition/sizes.phtml. Accessed April 10, 2011.
  13. Ordog GJ, Wasserberger J, Balasubramaniam S. Shotgun wound ballistics. J Trauma. 1988;28:624-631. (Review article)
  14. Fackler ML. Wound ballistics: a review of common misconceptions. JAMA. 1988;259:2730-2736. (Review article)
  15. Tian HM, Deng GG, Huang MJ, et al. Quantitative bacteriological study of the wound track. J Trauma. 1988;28(1 Suppl):S215-S216. (Prospective study; 46 dogs)
  16. Volgas D, Stannard J, Alonso J. Ballistics: a primer for the surgeon. Injury Int J Care Injured. 2005;36:373-379. (Review article)
  17. Gestring ML, Geller ER, Akkad N, et al. Shotgun slug injuries: case report and literature review. J Trauma. 1996;40(4):650-653. (Case report and literature review)
  18. Fackler ML, Breteau JP, Courbil LJ, et al. Open wound drainage versus wound excision in treating the modern assault rifle wound. Surgery. 1989;105(5):576-584. (Prospective study; swine model)
  19. Lichte P, Oberbeck R, Binnebosel M, et al. A civilian perspective on ballistic trauma and gunshot injuries. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2010;18:35. (Review article)
  20. Wang ZG, Feng JX, Liu YQ. Pathomorphological observations of gunshot wounds. Acta Chir Scand Supple. 1982;508:185-195. (Prospective study; 64 dogs)
  21. Jenkins D, Dougherty P. The effects of bullets. Edited by: Mahoney et al. Ballistic Trauma. London: Springer Verlag ebook 2005:40-44. (Textbook chapter)
  22. Grosse Perdekamp M, et al. Gunshot-related transport of micro-organisms from the skin of the entrance region into the bullet path. Int J Legal Med. 2006;120(5):257-264. (Prospective study; pigs and ballistic gelatin)
  23. Smith JS Jr, Martin LF, Young WW, et al. Do trauma centers improve outcome over non-trauma centers: the evaluation of regional trauma care using discharge abstract data and patient management categories. J Trauma. 1990;30(12):1533-1538. (Retrospective study; 1332 patients)
  24. Sampalis JS, Denis R, Frechette P, et al. Direct transport to tertiary trauma centers versus transfer from lower level facilities: impact on mortality and morbidity among patients with major trauma. J Trauma. 1997;43(2):288-295. (Retrospective study; 4646 patients)
  25. * Wang HE, Pietzman AB, Cassidy LD, et al. Out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation and outcome after traumatic brain injury. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;44:439-450 (Prospective study; 4098 patients)
  26. American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. Prehospital trauma care. In: Resources for Optimal Care of the Injured Patient. American College of Surgeons (Ed), Chicago 2006. (Textbook chapter)
  27. * Kragh JF Jr, Littrel ML, Jones JA, et al. Survival with emergency tourniquet use to stop bleeding in major limb trauma. Ann Surg. 2009;249(1):1-7. (Prospective study; 232 patients, 408 tourniquets)
  28. American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma, ATLS® Student Course Manual, 8th ed. 2008, American College of Surgeons. Chicago, IL. (Textbook)
  29. * Murray JA, Demetriades D, Asensio JA, et al. Occult injuries to the diaphragm: prospective evaluation of laparoscopy in penetrating injuries to the left lower chest. J Am Coll Surg. 1998; 187:626-630. (Prospective study; 110 patients)
  30. Nagy KK, Lowhman C, Kim DO, et al. Role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of occult penetrating cardiac injury. J Trauma.1995;38:859-862. (Retrospective study; 121 patients)
  31. Sadjadi J, Curetan EL, Dozier KC, et al. Expedited treatment of lower extremity gunshot wounds. J Am Coll Surg. 2009;209(6):740-745. (Retrospective study; 182 patients)
  32. Newton EJ. Acute complications of extremity trauma. Emerg Med Clin N Am. 2007;25:751-761. (Review article)
  33. Inaba K, Potzman J, Menura F, et al. Multi-slice CT angiography for arterial evaluation in the injured lower extremity. J Trauma. 2006;60:502-507. (Retrospective study; 59 patients)
  34. Frykberg ER, Dennis JW, Bishop K, et al. The reliability of physical examination in the evaluation of penetrating extremity trauma for vascular injury: results at one year. J Trauma. 1991;31:502-511. (Prospective study; 310 patients)
  35. Manthey DE, Nicks BA. Penetrating trauma to the extremity. J Emerg Med. 2008;34(2):187-193. (Review article)
  36. Zafonte, RD, Wood DL, Harrison-Felix CL, et al. Penetrating head injury: A prospective study of outcomes. Neuro Res. 2001;23: 219-222. (Prospective study; 442 patients)
  37. Aarabi B. Alden TD. Chestnut RM, et al. Guidelines for the management of penetrating brain injury. J Trauma. 2001;51(suppl):S1-S86. (Evidence-based guidelines)
  38. Myburgh J, Cooper DJ, Finfer S, et al. Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:874-884. (Post-hoc analysis of SAFE study; 460 patients)
  39. Ertmer, C, Kampmeier R, Rehburg S, et al. Fluid resuscitation in multiple trauma patients. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. 2011;24(2):202-208. (Review article)
  40. Cooper DJ, Myles PS, McDermott FT, et al. Prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291(11):1350-1357. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 229 patients)
  41. Bulger EM, Cuschieri J, Warner K, et al. Hypertonic resuscitation modulates the inflammatory response in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Ann Surg. 2007;245:635-641. (Prospective study; 62 patients, 20 volunteers)
  42. Haynes WG. Penetrating brain wounds: analysis of 342 cases. J Neurosurg. 1945;2:365-378. (Retrospective study; 342 cases)
  43. Prabhu VC, Khosrovi H, Kaufman HH. Survey of antibiotic prophylaxis in minor neurosurgical procedures. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Abstract: 1997 April 12. (Survey)
  44. Bullock R, van Dellen JR, Ketelbey W, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics for elective neurosurgery. J Neurosurg. 1988;69(5):687-691. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 417 patients)
  45. Kaufman HH, Shwab K, Salazar AM. A national survey of neurosurgical care for penetrating head injury. Surg Neurol. 1991;36:370-377. (Survey)
  46. Bayston R, du Louvois J, Brown EM, et al. Use of antibiotics in penetrating craniocerebral injuries. ”Infection in Neurosurgery” Working Party of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Lancet. 2000. 20;355(9217):1813-1817. (Systematic review)
  47. Esposito D, Walker J. Contemporary management of penetrating brain injury. Neurosurg Q. 2009;19:249-254. (Review article)
  48. Chang BS, Lowenstein, DH. Practice parameter: antiepileptic drug prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2003;60(1):10-16. (Systematic review article and expert recommendations)
  49. Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Wilensky AJ, et al. A randomized, double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of post-traumatic seizures. N Engl J Med. 1990;323(8):497-502. (Prospective, randomized study; 404 patients)
  50. Young KD, Okada PJ, Sokolove PE, et al. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of phenytoin for the prevention of early posttraumatic seizures in children with moderate to severe blunt head injury. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43(4):435-446. (Prospective randomized controlled trial; 102 pediatric patients)
  51. Jones KE, Puccio AM, Harshman KJ, et al. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25(4):E3. (Prospective study; 32 patients compared to historical controls)
  52. Szaflarski JP, Sangha KS, Lindsell CJ, et al. Prospective, randomized, single-blinded comparative trial of intravenous levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis. Neurocrit Care. 2010;12(2):165-172. (Prospective randomized trial; 52 patients)
  53. Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Anderson GD, et al. Valproate therapy for prevention of posttraumatic seizures: a randomized trial. J Neurosurg. 1999;91(4):593-600. (Prospective randomized trial; 367 patients)
  54. Dikmen SS, Machamer JE, Winn HR, et al. Neuropsychological effects of valproate in traumatic brain injury: a randomized trial. Neurology. 2000;54:895-902. (Prospective randomized trial; 279 patients)
  55. Vialet R, Albanèse J, Thomachot L et al. Isovolume hyper2011tonic solutes (sodium chloride or mannitol) in the treatment of refractory posttraumatic intracranial hypertension: 2 mL/kg 7.5% saline is more effective than 2 mL/kg 20% mannitol. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(6):1683-1687. (Prospective randomized study; 20 patients)
  56. Ichai C, Armando G, Orban JC, et al. Comparison of mannitol and hypertonic saline in the treatment of severe brain injuries. J Neurosurg. 2011;114(2):545-548. (Prospective study; 199 events in 29 patients)
  57. Kerwin AJ, Schinco MA, Tepas JJ 3rd, et al. The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline for the management of elevated intracranial pressure in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a pilot study. J Trauma. 2009;67(2):277-282. (Retrospective study; 22 patients)
  58. Kamel H, Navi BB, Nakagawa K, et al. Hypertonic saline versus mannitol for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(3):554-559. (Meta-analysis; 5 trials, 112 patients)
  59. Ng I, Lim J, Wong, EB. Effects of head posture on cerebral hemodynamics - its influence on intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and cerebral oxygenation. Neurosurgery. 2004;54(3):593-597.
  60. Ahmed A. Selective observational management of penetrating neck injury in northern Nigeria. S. Afr J Surg. 2009:47(3):80, 82-85. (Prospective trial; 225 patients)
  61. Azuaje RE, Jacobsen LE, Glover J, et al. Reliability of physical examination as a predictor of vascular injury after penetrating neck trauma. Am Surg. 2003:69(9):804-807. (Retrospective study; 216 patients)
  62. Gonzalez RP, Ralimirski M, Holear M, et al. Penetrating zone II neck injury: does dynamic computed tomographic scan contribute to the diagnostic sensitivity of physical examination for surgically significant injury? A prospective blinded study. J Trauma. 2003;54:61-65. (Prospective, blinded; 42 patients)
  63. Brywczynski JJ, Barrett TW, Lyon JA, et al. Management of penetrating neck injury in the emergency department: a structured literature review. Emerg Med J. 2008;25(11):711-715. (Systematic review)
  64. Mandavia D, Qualls S, Rokos I. Emergency airway management in penetrating neck injury. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35:221-225. (Retrospective study; 784 patients)
  65. Weitzel N, Kendall J, Pons P. Blind nasotracheal intubation for patients with penetrating neck trauma. J Trauma. 2004;56:1097-1101. (Retrospective study; 240 patients)
  66. Tallon J, Ahmed J, Sealy B. Airway management in penetrating neck trauma at a Canadian tertiary trauma centre. Can J Emerg Med. 2007;9(2):101-104. (Retrospective study; 19 patients)
  67. Tisherman SA, Bokhari F, Collier B, et al. Clinical practice guideline: penetrating zone II neck trauma. J Trauma. 2008;64(5):1392-1405. (Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines)
  68. Munera F, Soto JA, Palacio DM, et al. Penetrating neck injuries: helical CT angiography for initial evaluation. Radiology. 2002:2;366-372. (Prospective trial; 175 patients)
  69. Munera F, Cohn S, Rivas L. Penetrating injuries of the neck: use of helical computed tomographic angiography. J Trauma. 2005;58:413-418. (Review article)
  70. Gracias VH, Reilly PM, Philpott J, et al. Computed tomography in the evaluation of penetrating neck trauma. Arch Surg. 2001;136:1231-1235. (Retrospective case series; 23 patients)
  71. Woo K, Magner D, Wilson M, et al. CT angiography in penetrating neck trauma reduces the need for operative neck exploration. Am Surg. 2005;9:754-758. (Retrospective review; 130 patients)
  72. Corr P, Abdool Carrim AT, Pobbs J. Colour-flow ultrasound in the detection of penetrating vascular injuries of the neck. S Afr Med J. 1999;89:644-646. (Prospective study; 25 patients)
  73. * Demetriades D, Theodorou D, Cornwell E, et al. Evaluation of penetrating injuries of the neck: prospective study of 223 patients. World J. Surg. 1997:21;41-48. (Prospective trial; 223 patients)
  74. Osborn TM, Bell RB, Qaisi W, et al. Computed tomographic angiography as an aid to clinical decision making in the selective management of penetrating injuries to the neck: a reduction in the need for operative exploration. J Trauma. 2008;64(6):1466-1471. (Retrospective study; 65 patients)
  75. Asensio JA, Chahwan S, Forno W. Penetrating esophageal injuries: multicenter study of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma. 2001;50:289-296. (Retrospective, multicenter study; 405 patients)
  76. Wood J, Fabian TC, Mangrante EC. Penetrating neck injuries: recommendations for selective management. J Trauma. 1989;29:602-605. (Retrospective study; 225 patients)
  77. Weigelt JA, Thal ER, Snyder WH III, et al. Diagnosis of penetrating cervical esophageal injuries. Am J Surg. 1987;154:619-622. (Review article)
  78. Mariadson JG, Parsa MH, Ayuyao A, et al. Management of stab wounds to the thoracoabdominal region. A clinical approach. Ann Surg. 1988;207:355-340. (Prospective observational study; 324 patients)
  79. Sisley AC, Rozycki GS, Ballard RB, et al. Rapid detection of traumatic effusion using surgeon-performed ultrasonography. J Trauma. 1998;44:291-296. (Prospective trial; 360 patients)
  80. Rozycki GS, Feliciano DV, Ochsner MG, et al. The role of ultrasound in patients with possible penetrating cardiac wounds: a prospective multicenter study. J Trauma. 1999;46:543-551. (Prospective trial; 261 patients)
  81. Ball CG, Williams BH, Wyrzykowski AD, et al. A caveat to the performance of pericardial ultrasound in patients with penetrating cardiac wounds. J Trauma. 2009;67:1123-1124. (Case series; 5 patients)
  82. Ball CG, Kirkapatrick AW, Laupland KB, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes for occult pneumothoraces in victims of major trauma. J Trauma. 2005;59:917-925. (Retrospective study; 338 patients)
  83. Stafford RE, Linn J, Washington L. Incidence and management of occult hemothoraces. Am J Surg. 2006;192:722-726. (Retrospective study; 410 patients)
  84. Sanchez LD, Straszewski S, Saghir A, et al. Anterior versus lateral needle decompression of tension pneumothorax comparison by computed tomography chest wall measurement. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;18(10):1022-1026. (Retrospective study; 159 patients)
  85. McLean AR, Richards ME, Crandall CS, et al. Ultrasound determination of chest wall thickness: implications for needle thoracostomy. Am J Emerg Med. 2010 Oct 12 [Epub ahead of print]. (Observational cross-section study; 51 patients)
  86. Ball CG, Wyrzykowski AD, Kirkpatrick AW, et al. Thoracic needle decompression for tension pneumothorax: clinical correlation with catheter length. Can J Surg. 2010;53(3):184-188. (Retrospective study; 142 patients)
  87. Martin RR, Bickell WH, Pepe PE, et al. Prospective evaluation of preoperative fluid resuscitation in hypotensive patients with penetrating truncal injury: a preliminary report. J Trauma. 1992; 33(3):354-361. (Prospective, randomized trial; 300 patients)
  88. * Bickell WH, Wall MJ Jr, Pepe PE, et al. Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. New Engl J Med. 1994;331(17):1105-1109. (Prospective randomized trial; 289 patients)
  89. * Niles SE, McLaughlin DF, Perkins JG, et al. Increased mortality associated with the early coagulopathy of trauma combat casualties. J Trauma. 2008;64(6):1459-1463. (Retrospective study; 3287 patients)
  90. CRASH-2 trial collaborators, Shakur H, Roberts I, Bautista R, et al. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9734):23-32. (Prospective, randomized study; 20,211 patients)*
  91. Sanabria A, Vadliviesso E, Gomes G, et al. Prophylactic antibiotics in chest trauma: a meta-analysis of high-quality studies. World J Surg. 2006;30:1843-1847. (Meta-analysis)
  92. Pinedo-Onofre JA, Guevara-Torres L, Sánchez-Aguilar JM. Penetrating abdominal trauma. Cir Cir. 2006;74(6):431-442. (Review article)
  93. Musau P, Jani PG, Owillah FA. Pattern and outcome of abdominal injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2006;83(1):37-43. (Prospective observational study; 80 patients)
  94. Pryor JP, Reilly PM, Dabrowski GP, et al. Nonoperative management of abdominal gunshot wounds. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43:344-353. (Review article)
  95. Demetriades D, Hadjizacharia P, Constantinou C, et al. Selective nonoperative management of penetrating abdominal solid organ injuries. Ann Surg. 2006;244:620-628. (Prospective, protocol-driven study; 152 patients)
  96. Como JJ, Bokhari F, Chiu WC, et al. Practice management guidelines for selective nonoperative management of penetrating abdominal trauma. J Trauma. 2010;68:721-733. (Evidence-based clinical guidelines)
  97. Boulanger BR, Kearney PA, Tsuei B, et al. The routine use of sonography in penetrating torso trauma is beneficial. J Trauma. 2001;51(2):320-325. (Prospective observational study; 238 patients)
  98. Velmahos GC, Constatinou C, Tillou A, et al. Abdominal computed tomographic scans for patients with gunshot wounds to the abdomen selected for nonoperative management. J Trauma. 2005;59:1155-1161. (Prospective study; 100 patients)
  99. Thacker LK, Parks J, Thal ER. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage: is 100,000 RBCs a valid figure for penetrating abdominal trauma? J Trauma. 2007;62:853-857. (Retrospective study; 195 patients)
  100. Ahmed N, Whelan J, Brownlee J, et al. The contribution of laparoscopy in evaluation of penetrating abdominal wounds. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;201:213-216. (Prospective study; 52 patients)
  101. Velmahos GC, Demetriades D, Toutouzakas KG, et al. Selective nonoperative management in 1,856 patients with abdominal gunshot wounds: should routine laparotomy still be the standard of care? Ann Surg. 2001;234:395-403. (Retrospective study; 1856 patients over 8 years)
  102. Jankowski JT, Spirnak JP. Current recommendations for imaging in the management of urologic traumas. Urol Clin North Am. 2006;33:365. (Review article)
  103. Bandi G, Santucci RA. Controversies in the management of male external genitourinary trauma. J Trauma. 2004;56(6):1362-1370. (Review article)
  104. Gomez RG, Ceballos L, Coburn M, et al. Consensus statement on bladder injuries. BJU Int. 2004;94(1):27-32. (Expert opinion guidelines)
  105. Elliot SP, McAnnich JW. Ureteral injuries from external violence: the 25-year experience at San Francisco General Hospital. J Urol. 2003;170(4 Pt 1):1213-1216. (Retrospective study; 36 patients)
  106. Carver BS, Baseman CB, Venable DD. Ureteral injury due to penetrating trauma. South Med J. 2004;97(5):462-464. (Retrospective study; 12 patients)
  107. Lynch TH, Martinez-Pineiro L, Plas E, et al. EAU guidelines on urological trauma. Eur Urol. 2005;47(1):1-15. (Consensus committee practice guidelines)
  108. Gotsch KE, Amnest JL, Mercy JA, et al. Surveillance for fatal and nonfatal firearms-related injuries: United States, 1993-1998. MMWR. 2001;50:1-31. (Surveillance statistics)
  109. Byrne A, Curran P. Necessity breeds invention: a study of outpatient management of low-velocity gunshot wounds. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:376-378. (Retrospective observational study; 90 patients)
  110. Hull JB. Management of gunshot fractures of the extremities. J Trauma. 1996;40(3 Suppl):S193-197. (Review article)
  111. Dicpinigaitis PA, Koval KJ, Tejwani NC, et al. Gunshot wounds to the extremities. Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis. 2006;64(3-4):139-155. (Review article)
  112. Ragsdale BD, Josselson A. Experimental gunshot fractures. J Trauma.1988;28(Supp1):109-115. (Retrospective study)
  113. Moed BR, Fakhouri AJ. Compartment syndrome after low-velocity gunshot wounds to the forearm. J Orthop Trauma. 1991;6(1):134-137. (Retrospective study; 127 patients)
  114. Long WT, Brien EW, Boucree JB Jr, et al. Management of civilian gunshot injuries to the hip. Orthop Clin North Am. 1995;26(1):123-130. (Review article)
  115. Gonzalez RP, Scott W, Wright A, et al. Anatomic location of penetrating lower-extremity trauma predicts compartment syndrome development. Am J Surgery. 2009;197:371-375. (Retrospective chart review; 321 patients)
  116. McSwain NE. Ballistics. In: The Textbook of Penetrating Trauma. Ivatury RR, Cayte CG (eds). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1996, 108. (Textbook chapter)
  117. Peng PD, Spain DA, Tataria M, et al. CT angiography effectively evaluates extremity vascular trauma. Am Surg. 2008;74(2):103-107. (Retrospective study; 2251 patients)
  118. Rieger M, Mallouhi A, Tauscher T, et al. Traumatic arterial injuries of the extremities: initial evaluation with MDCT angiography. Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186:656-664. (Retrospective study; 87 patients)
  119. Oakes R, Urban A, Levy P. The mangled extremity. J Emerg Med. 2008;35(4):437-444. (Case-based review article)
  120. Fry WR, Smith RS, Sayers DV, et al. The success of duplex ultrasonographic scanning in the diagnosis of extremity vascular proximity trauma. Arch Surg. 1993;128:1368-1372. (Prospective study; 225 patients)
  121. Taylor CA, Braza D, Rice JB, et al. The incidence of peripheral nerve injury in extremity trauma. Am J Phys Med Rehab. 2008;87(5):381-385. (Retrospective study; 220,593 patients)
  122. Noble J, Munro CA, Prasad VS, et al. Analysis of upper and lower extremity peripheral nerve injuries in a population of patients with multiple injuries. J Trauma. 1988;45:116-122. (Prospective study; 162 patients)
  123. Yegiyants S, Dayicioglu D, Kardashian G, et al. Traumatic peripheral nerve injury: a wartime review. J Craniofacial Surg. 2010;21(4):998-1001. (Review article)
  124. Brown TD, Michas P, Williams RE, et al. The impact of gunshot wounds on an orthopaedic surgical service in an urban trauma center. J Orthop Trauma. 1997;11:149-153. (Retrospective study; 284 patients)
  125. Hollerman JJ, Facker ML, Coldwell DM, et al. Gunshot wounds: 1. Bullets, ballistics, and mechanisms of injury. AJR Am J of Roentgenol. 1990;155(4):685-690. (Review article)
  126. Watters J, Anglen JO, Mullis BH. The role of débridement in low-velocity civilian gunshot injuries resulting in pelvis fractures: a retrospective review of acute infection and inpatient mortality. J Orthop Trauma. 2011;25(3):150-155. (Retrospective study; 56 patients)
  127. Ordog GJ, Sheppard GF, Wasserberger JS, et al. Infection in minor gunshot wounds. J Trauma. 1993;34:358-365. (Prospective study; 3684 patients)
  128. Burg A, Nachum G, Salai M, et al. Treating civilian gunshot wounds to the extremities in a level I trauma center: our experience and recommendations. IMAJ. 2009;11:546-551.(Retrospective study; 60 patients)
  129. Ritenour AE, Dorlac WC, Fang R, et al. Complications after fasciotomy revision and delayed compartment release in combat patients. J Trauma. 2008;64:s153-s161. (Retrospective study; 336 patients, 643 fasciotomies)
  130. Ross RT, Hammen PF, Frantz EI et al. Gunshot wounds: evaluating the adequacy of documentation at a level I trauma center. J Trauma. 1998;45:151-152. (Retrospective study)
  131. Smock WS. Forensic Emergency Medicine. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine 6th ed. 2006;952-966. (Textbook chapter)
  132. Assid P. Evidence collection and documentation, are you prepared to be a medical detective? Topics in Emergency Medicine. 2005;27(1):15-26. (Review)
  133. Dickey RL, Barnes BC, Kearns RJ, et al. Efficacy of antibiotics in low-velocity gunshot fracture. J Orthop Trauma. 1989;3(1):6-10. (Prospective randomized; 96 patients)
  134. Knapp TP, Patzakis MJ, Lee J, et al. Comparison of intravenous and oral antibiotic therapy in treatment of fractures caused by low-velocity gunshots. A prospective, randomized study of infection rates. J Bone Joint Surg. 1996;78(8):1167-1171. (Prospective randomized; 222 fractures, 190 patients)
  135. Patzakis MJ, Wilkins J. Factors influencing infection rate in open fracture wounds. Clin Orthop. 1989;243:36-40. (Retrospective study; 1104 open fractures)
  136. Fackler ML. Civilian gunshot wounds and ballistics: dispelling the myths. Emerg Med Clin N Am. 1998;16(1):18-29. (Review article)
  137. Skaggs DL, Friend L, Alman B, et al. The effect of surgical delay on acute infection following 554 open fractures in children. J Bone Joint Surg. 2005;87(1):8-12. (Retrospective study; 554 open fractures in 536 patients)
  138. Lanoix R, Gupta R, Leak L, et al. C-spine injury associated with gunshot wounds to the head: retrospective study and literature review. J Trauma. 2000;49(5):860-863. (Retrospective study; 174 patients)
  139. Kaups KL, Davis JW. Patients with gunshot wounds to the head do not require cervical spine immobilization and evaluation. J Trauma. 1998;44(5):865-867. (Retrospective study; 215 patients)
  140. Dubose J, Teixera PG, Hadjizacharia P, et al. The role of routine spinal imaging and immobilization in asymptomatic patients after gunshot wounds, Injury. 2009;409(8);860-863. (Retrospective study; 4204 patients)
  141. Seamon MJ, Pathak AS, Bradley KM, et al. Emergency department thoracotomy: still useful after abdominal exsanguinations. J Trauma. 2008;64(1):1-7. (Retrospective study; 237 patients)
  142. Moore EE, Knudson MM, Burlew CC, et al. Defining the limits of resuscitative emergency department thoracotomy: a contemporary Western Trauma Association perspective. J Trauma. 2011;70(2):334-339. (Retrospective study; 6 years, 18 institutions)
  143. Gould SA, Moore EE, Hoyt DB, et al. The first randomized trial of human polymerized hemoglobin as a blood substitute in acute trauma and emergency surgery. J Am Coll Surg. 1998; 187(2):113-120. (Prospective randomized trial; 44 patients)
  144. Moore EE, Moore FA, Fabian TC, et al. Human polymerized hemoglobin for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock when blood is not available: the USA multicenter trial. J Am Coll Surg. 2009; 208(1):1-13. (Prospective trial; 714 patients)

trauma 2 ballistic

Publication Information

David Bruner; Corey G. Gustafson; Catherine Visintainer

Publication Date

December 2, 2011

Get Permission

Related Articles

Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock: Advances In Fluid Management

Current Guidelines For Advanced Trauma Life Support? In The Emergency Department

Get A Sample Issue Of Emergency Medicine Practice
Enter your email to get your copy today! Plus receive updates on EB Medicine every month.
Please provide a valid email address.