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<< Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock: Advances In Fluid Management (Trauma CME)

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References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the author, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

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  39. Alam HB, Sun L, Ruff P, et al. E- and P-selectin expression depends on the resuscitation fluid used in hemorrhaged rats. J Surg Res. 2000;94(2):145-152. (Animal study)
  40. Todd SR, Malinoski D, Muller PJ, et al. Lactated Ringer’s is superior to normal saline in the resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2007;62(3):636-639. (Animal study)
  41. Rizoli SB. Crystalloids and colloids in trauma resuscitation: a brief overview of the current debate. J Trauma. 2003;54(5 Suppl):S82-S88. (Review)
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  43. Choi PT, Yip G, Quinonez LG, et al. Crystalloids vs. colloids in fluid resuscitation: a systematic review. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(1):200-210. (Systematic review)
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  48. Jacob M, Chappell D. Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(25):2634-2635; author reply 2635-2636. (Commentary)
  49. Bunn F, Trivedi D, Ashraf S. Colloid solutions for fluid resuscitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(1):CD001319. (Systematic review)
  50. Velasco IT, Pontieri V, Rocha e Silva M Jr, et al. Hyperosmotic NaCl and severe hemorrhagic shock. Am J Physiol. 1980;239(5):H664-673. (Animal study)
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  52. Ciesla DJ, Moore EE, Gonzalez RJ, et al. Hypertonic saline inhibits neutrophil (PMN) priming via attenuation of p38 MAPK signaling. Shock. 2000;14(3):265-269; discussion 269-270. (Cell study)
  53. Ciesla DJ, Moore EE, Zallen G, et al. Hypertonic saline attenuation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil cytotoxicity: timing is everything. J Trauma. 2000;48(3):388-395. (Cell study)
  54. Bunn F, Roberts I, Tasker R, et al. Hypertonic versus near isotonic crystalloid for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(3):CD002045. (Systematic
    review
    )
  55. Cooper DJ, Myles PS, McDermott FT, et al. Prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291(11):1350-1357. (Prospective randomized double-blind; 229 patients)
  56. Kramer GC, Perron PR, Lindsey DC, et al. Small-volume resuscitation with hypertonic saline dextran solution. Surgery. 1986;100(2):239-247. (Animal study)
  57. Maningas PA, Bellamy RF. Hypertonic sodium chloride solutions for the prehospital management of traumatic hemorrhagic shock: a possible improvement in the standard of care? Ann Emerg Med. 1986;15(12):1411-1414. (Review)
  58. Wade CE, Kramer GC, Grady JJ, et al. Efficacy of hypertonic 7.5% saline and 6% dextran-70 in treating trauma: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical studies. Surgery. 1997;122(3):609-616. (Meta-analysis)
  59. Rizoli SB, Rhind SG, Shek PN, et al. The immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic saline resuscitation in patients sustaining traumatic hemorrhagic shock: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Ann Surg. 2006;243(1):47-57. (Prospective randomized double-blind; 27 patients)
  60. Riddez L, Drobin D, Sjostrand F, et al. Lower dose of hypertonic saline dextran reduces the risk of lethal rebleeding in uncontrolled hemorrhage. Shock. 2002;17(5):377-382. (Animal
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  61. Bruttig SP, O’Benar JD, Wade CE, et al. Benefit of slow infusion of hypertonic saline/dextran in swine with uncontrolled aortotomy hemorrhage. Shock. 2005;24(1):92-96. (Animal study)
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  67. Sakles JC, Sena MJ, Knight DA, et al. Effect of immediate fluid resuscitation on the rate, volume, and duration of pulmonary vascular hemorrhage in a sheep model of penetrating thoracic trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29(3):392-399. (Animal study)
  68. Holmes JF, Sakles JC, Lewis G, et al. Effects of delaying fluid resuscitation on an injury to the systemic arterial vasculature. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(4):267-274. (Animal study)
  69. Stern SA, Dronen SC, Birrer P, et al. Effect of blood pressure on hemorrhage volume and survival in a near-fatal hemorrhage model incorporating a vascular injury. Ann Emerg Med. 1993;22(2):155-163. (Animal study)
  70. Stern SA, Kowalenko T, Younger J, et al. Comparison of the effects of bolus vs. slow infusion of 7.5% NaCl/6% dextran-70 in a model of near-lethal uncontrolled hemorrhage. Shock. 2000;14(6):616-622. (Animal study)
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  72. Mapstone J, Roberts I, Evans P. Fluid resuscitation strategies: a systematic review of animal trials. J Trauma. 2003;55(3):571-589. (Systematic review)
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  74. Revell M, Greaves I, Porter K. Endpoints for fluid resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2003;54(5 Suppl):S63-S67. (Review)
  75. Blair SD, Janvrin SB, McCollum CN, et al. Effect of early blood transfusion on gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Br J Surg. 1986;73(10):783-785. (Prospective; 50 patients)
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  77. Barbee RW, Reynolds PS, Ward KR. Assessing shock resuscitation strategies by oxygen debt repayment. Shock. 2010;33(2):113-122. (Review)
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  96. Hirshberg A, Dugas M, Banez EI, et al. Minimizing dilutional coagulopathy in exsanguinating hemorrhage: a computer simulation. J Trauma. 2003;54(3):454-463. (Computer simulation)
  97. Borgman MA, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, et al. The ratio of blood products transfused affects mortality in patients receiving massive transfusions at a combat support hospital. J Trauma. 2007;63(4):805-813. (Retrospective; 246 patients)
  98. Duchesne JC, Hunt JP, Wahl G, et al. Review of current blood transfusions strategies in a mature level I trauma center: were we wrong for the last 60 years? J Trauma. 2008;65(2):272-276; discussion 276-278. (Retrospective; 2746 patients)
  99. Mitra B, Mori A, Cameron PA, et al. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) use during massive blood transfusion in trauma resuscitation. Injury. 2010;41(1):35-39. (Retrospective; 331 patients)
  100. Snyder CW, Weinberg JA, McGwin G, Jr, et al. The relationship of blood product ratio to mortality: survival benefit or survival bias? J Trauma. 2009;66(2):358-362; discussion 362-354. (Retrospective; 134 patients)
  101. Scalea TM, Bochicchio KM, Lumpkins K, et al. Early aggressive use of fresh frozen plasma does not improve outcome in critically injured trauma patients. Ann Surg. Oct 2008;248(4):578-584. (Prospective; 806 patients)
  102. Riskin DJ, Tsai TC, Riskin L, et al. Massive transfusion protocols: the role of aggressive resuscitation versus product ratio in mortality reduction. J Am Coll Surg. 2009;209(2):198-205. (Retrospective; 77 patients)
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  105. Duchesne JC, Kimonis K, Marr AB, et al. Damage control resuscitation in combination with damage control laparotomy: a survival advantage. J Trauma. 2010;69(1):46-52. (Retrospective;
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  107. Carless PA, Henry DA, Moxey AJ, et al. Cell salvage for minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(3):CD001888. (Systematic review)
  108. Shakur H, Roberts I, Bautista R, et al. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9734):23-32. (Prospective randomized doubleblind; 20,211 patients)
  109. Cap AP, Baer DG, Orman JA, et al. Tranexamic acid for trauma patients: a critical review of the literature. J Trauma. 2011;71(1):s9-s14. (Review)
  110. Duchesne JC, McSwain NE, Jr, Cotton BA, et al. Damage control resuscitation: the new face of damage control. J Trauma. 2010;69(4):976-990. (Review)
  111. Yu HP, Chaudry IH. The role of estrogen and receptor agonists in maintaining organ function after trauma-hemorrhage. Shock. 2009;31(3):227-237. (Review)
  112. Angele MK, Schwacha MG, Ayala A, et al. Effect of gender and sex hormones on immune responses following shock. Shock. 2000;14(2):81-90. (Review)
  113. Nickel EA, Hsieh CH, Chen JG, et al. Estrogen suppresses cardiac IL-6 after trauma-hemorrhage via a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha-mediated pathway. Shock. 2009;31(4):354-358. (Animal study)
  114. Kozlov AV, Duvigneau JC, Hyatt TC, et al. Effect of estrogen on mitochondrial function and intracellular stress markers in rat liver and kidney following trauma-hemorrhagic shock and prolonged hypotension. Mol Med. 2010;16(7-8):254-261. (Animal study)
  115. Natanson C, Kern SJ, Lurie P, et al. Cell-free hemoglobinbased blood substitutes and risk of myocardial infarction and death: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008;299(19):2304-2312. (Meta-analysis)
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  117. Gonzales E, Chen H, Munuve R, et al. Valproic acid prevents hemorrhage-associated lethality and affects the acetylation pattern of cardiac histones. Shock. 2006;25(4):395-401. (Animal
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  118. Szalay L, Shimizu T, Suzuki T, et al. Androstenediol administration after trauma-hemorrhage attenuates inflammatory response, reduces organ damage, and improves survival following sepsis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291(2):G260-G266. (Animal study)
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David Cherkas

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November 2, 2011

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