0

<< Evidence-Based Management Of Suspected Appendicitis In The Emergency Department

References

TOC Will Appear Here

References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available.

  1. Prystowsky JB, Pugh CM, Nagle AP. Current problems in surgery. Appendicitis. Curr Probl Surg. 2005;42(10):688-742. PubMed PMID: 16198668. (Review)
  2. Freeland M, King E, Safcsak K, et al. Diagnosis of appendicitis in pregnancy. Am J Surg. 2009 Dec;198(6):753-758. PubMed PMID: 19969125. (Retrospective review; 47 patients)
  3. Gilo NB, Amini D, Landy HJ. Appendicitis and cholecystitis in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009;52(4):586-596. (Review)
  4. Andersen B, Nielsen TF. Appendicitis in pregnancy: diagnosis, management and complications. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999;78(9):758-762. PubMed PMID: 10535336. (Retrospective review; 56 patients)
  5. Paulson EK, Kalady MF, Pappas TN. Clinical practice. Suspected appendicitis. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(3):236-242. PubMed PMID: 12529465. (Review)
  6. Addiss DG, Shaffer N, Fowler BS, et al. The epidemiology of appendicitis and appendectomy in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;132(5):910-925. PubMed PMID: 2239906. (Epidemiologic study)
  7. Brown TW, McCarthy ML, Kelen GD, et al. An epidemiologic study of closed emergency department malpractice claims in a national database of physician malpractice insurers. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17(5):553-560. PubMed PMID: 20536812. (Epidemiologic study)
  8. Horattas MC, Guyton DP, Wu D. A reappraisal of appendicitis in the elderly. Am J Surg. 1990;160(3):291-293. (Retrospective review; 96 patients)
  9. Lyon C, Clark DC. Diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in older patients. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74(9):1537-1544. (Review)
  10. Howell JM, Eddy OL, Lukens TW, et al. American College of Emergency Physicians. Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of emergency department patients with suspected appendicitis. Ann Emerg Med. 2010;55(1):71-116. PubMed PMID: 20116016. (Clinical guidelines; consensus statement)
  11. Wagner JM, McKinney WP, Carpenter JL. Does this patient have appendicitis? JAMA. 1996;276(19):1589-1594. PubMed PMID: 8918857. (Meta-analysis)
  12. Fenyö G. Acute abdominal disease in the elderly: experience from two series in Stockholm. Am J Surg. 1982;143(6):751-754. PubMed PMID: 7091511. (Case series; 726 patients)
  13. Basta M, Morton NE, Mulvihill JJ, et al. Inheritance of acute appendicitis: familial aggregation and evidence of polygenic transmission. Am J Hum Genet. 1990;46(2):377-382. PubMed PMID: 2301403. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1684984. (Case-controlled; 80 patients)
  14. Duffy DL, Martin NG, Mathews JD. Appendectomy in Australian twins. Am J Hum Genet. 1990;47(3):590-592. PubMed PMID: 2248678. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1683858. (Epidemiologic study; 11,854 patients)
  15. Arnbjörnsson E. Acute appendicitis and dietary fiber. Arch Surg. 1983;118(7):868-870. PubMed PMID: 6305309. (Case-controlled trial; 85 patients)
  16. Adamidis D, Roma-Giannikou E, Karamolegou K et al. Fiber intake and childhood appendicitis. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2000;51(3):153-157. PubMed PMID: 10945110. (Case-controlled trial; 61 patients)
  17. Sadr Azodi O, Andrén-Sandberg A, Larsson H. Genetic and environmental influences on the risk of acute appendicitis in twins. Br J Surg. 2009;96(11):1336-1340. PubMed PMID: 19847874. (Epidemiologic study; 5870 patients)
  18. Oldmeadow C, Wood I, Mengersen K, et al. Investigation of the relationship between smoking and appendicitis in Australian twins. Ann Epidemiol. 2008;18(8):631-636. PubMed PMID: 18652981. (Epidemiologic study)
  19. Sadr Azodi O, Lindström D, Adami J, et al. Impact of body mass index and tobacco smoking on outcome after open appendicectomy. Br J Surg. 2008;95(6):751-757. PubMed PMID: 18418861. (Epidemiologic study)
  20. Buschard K, Kjaeldgaard A. Investigation and analysis of the position, fixation, length and embryology of the vermiform appendix. Acta Chir Scand. 1973;139(3):293-298. PubMed PMID: 4698491. (Review)
  21. Whitley S, Sookur P, McLean A, et al. The appendix on CT. Clin Radiol. 2009;64(2):190-199. Epub 2008 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 19103350. (Review)
  22. Williamson WA, Bush RD, Williams LF Jr. Retrocecal appendicitis. Am J Surg. 1981;141(4):507-509. PubMed PMID: 7223938. (Retrospective; 105 cases)
  23. Birnbaum BA, Wilson SR. Appendicitis at the millennium. Radiology. 2000;215(2):337-348. (Review)
  24. Collins DC. 71,000 human appendix specimens. A final report, summarizing forty years’ study. Am J Proctol. 1963;14:265-281. PubMed PMID: 14098730. (Case series; 71,000 patients)
  25. Levine CD, Aizenstein O, Wachsberg RH. Pitfalls in the CT diagnosis of appendicitis. Br J Radiol. 2004;77(921):792-799. PubMed PMID: 15447972. (Review)
  26. Brennan GD. Pediatric appendicitis: pathophysiology and appropriate use of diagnostic imaging. CJEM. 2006;8(6):425-432. PubMed PMID: 17209492. (Review)
  27. Boley SJ, Agrawal GP, Warren AR, et al. Pathophysiologic effects of bowel distention on intestinal blood flow. Am J Surg. 1969;117(2):228-234. PubMed PMID: 5773936. (In vivo animal study)
  28. Bennion RS, Wilson SE, Serota AI, et al. The role of gastrointestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of complications of mesenteric ischemia. Rev Infect Dis. 1984;6 Suppl 1:S132-138. PubMed PMID: 6718933. (In vivo animal study)
  29. Bennion RS, Thompson JE, Baron EJ, et al. Gangrenous and perforated appendicitis with peritonitis: treatment and bacspiked teriology. Clin Ther. 1990;12 Suppl C:31-44. PubMed PMID: 2202510. (Prospective randomized controlled)
  30. Sivit CJ, Applegate KE. Imaging of acute appendicitis in children. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2003;24(2):74-82. PubMed PMID: 12744499. (Review)
  31. Wilson EB. Surgical evaluation of appendicitis in the new era of radiographic imaging. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2003;24(2):65-68. PubMed PMID: 12744497. (Review)
  32. Berk DR, Sylvester KG. Subacute appendicitis. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2005;44(4):363-365. (Case report)
  33. Lewis FR, Holcroft JW, Boey J, et al. Appendicitis. A critical review of diagnosis and treatment in 1,000 cases. Arch Surg. 1975;110(5):677-684. PubMed PMID: 16566087. (Retrospective; 1000 patients)
  34. Cobben LP, de Van Otterloo AM, Puylaert JB. Spontaneously resolving appendicitis: frequency and natural history in 60 patients. Radiology. 2000;215(2):349-352. (Retrospective; 60 patients)
  35. Lai D, Chuang Ch, Yu J, et al. Chronic or recurrent appendicitis? Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2007;99(10):613-615. PubMed PMID: 18052668. (Retrospective; 16 patients)
  36. Hawes AS, Whalen GF. Recurrent and chronic appendicitis: the other inflammatory conditions of the appendix. Am Surg. 1994;60(3):217-219. PubMed PMID: 8116986. (Review)
  37. Bjerke K, Brandtzaeg P, Rognum TO. Distribution of immunoglobulin-producing cells is different in normal human appendix and colon mucosa. Gut. 1986;27(6):667-674. PubMed PMID: 3721289; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1433323. (Comparative pathological study)
  38. Randal Bollinger R, Barbas AS, Bush EL, et al. Biofilms in the large bowel suggest an apparent function of the human vermiform appendix. J Theor Biol. 2007;249(4):826-831. (Review)
  39. Blakelock RT, Beasley SW. Infection and the gut. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2003;12(4):265-274. PubMed PMID: 14655166. (Review)
  40. Price R, Jeffrey RB, Vasanawala S. Appendiceal hyperemia and/or distention is not always appendicitis: appendicitis mimicry in the pediatric population. Clin Imaging. 2009;33(5):402-405. (Case report; 3 patients)
  41. Laméris W, van Randen A, Go PM, et al. Single and combined diagnostic value of clinical features and laboratory tests in acute appendicitis. Acad Emerg Med. 2009;16(9):835-842. Epub 2009 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 19689484. (Prospective; 1101 patients)
  42. Andersson RE. Meta-analysis of the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of appendicitis. Br J Surg. 2004;91(1):28-37. PubMed PMID: 14716790. (Meta-analysis; 5833 patients)
  43. Andersson RE, Hugander AP, Ghazi SH, et al. Diagnostic value of disease history, clinical presentation, and inflammatory parameters of appendicitis. World J Surg. 1999;23(2):133-140. PubMed PMID: 9880421. (Prospective; 496 patients)
  44. Yeh B. Evidence-based emergency medicine/rational clinical examination abstract. Does this adult patient have appendicitis? Ann Emerg Med. 2008;52(3):301-303. PubMed PMID: 18763359. (Review)
  45. Cardall T, Glasser J, Guss DA. Clinical value of the total white blood cell count and temperature in the evaluation of patients with suspected appendicitis. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11(10):1021-1027. PubMed PMID: 15466143. (Prospective consecutive case series; 293 patients)
  46. Lee SL, Walsh AJ, Ho HS. Computed tomography and ultrasonography do not improve and may delay the diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis. Arch Surg. 2001;136(5):556-562. PubMed PMID: 11343547. (Retrospective; 766 patients)
  47. Emery M, Jones J, Brown M. Clinical application of infrared thermography in the diagnosis of appendicitis. Am J Emerg Med. 1994;12(1):48-50. PubMed PMID: 8285972. (Prospective; 86 patients)
  48. Jaffe V, Mathie RT, Alexander B. Use of skin thermometer to diagnose acute appendicitis. BMJ. 1990;300(6730):1017. PubMed PMID: 2344499. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC 1662690.
  49. Dirckx, JH. Ed. Stedman’s Concise Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1997. (Textbook)
  50. Ozuah PO, Curtis J, Dinkevich E. Physical examination skills of US and international medical graduates. JAMA. 2001;286(9):1021. PubMed PMID: 11559281. (Review)
  51. Andersson RE, Hugander A, Thulin AJ. Diagnostic accuracy and perforation rate in appendicitis: association with age and sex of the patient and with appendectomy rate. Eur J Surg. 1992;158(1):37-41. PubMed PMID: 1348639. (Retrospective; 3029 patients)
  52. Swartz, MH. Textbook of Physical Diagnosis: History and Examination-3rd Edition. Philadelphia, PA: W.B Saunders Company; 1998. (Textbook)
  53. Berry J Jr, Malt RA. Appendicitis near its centenary. Ann Surg. 1984;200(5):567-575. PubMed PMID: 6385879; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1250537. (Review)
  54. Bongard F, Landers DV, Lewis F. Differential diagnosis of appendicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease. A prospective analysis. Am J Surg. 1985;150(1):90-96. PubMed PMID: 3160252. (Prospective; 118 patients)
  55. Old JL, Dusing RW, Yap W, et al. Imaging for suspected appendicitis. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71(1):71-78. PubMed PMID: 15663029. (Review)
  56. Dueholm S, Bagi P, Bud M. Laboratory aid in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A blinded, prospective trial concerning diagnostic value of leukocyte count, neutrophil differential count, and C-reactive protein. Dis Colon Rectum. 1989;32(10):855-859. PubMed PMID: 2676422. (Prospective; 204 patients)
  57. Kessler N, Cyteval C, Gallix B, et al. Appendicitis: evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of US, Doppler US, and laboratory findings. Radiology. 2004;230(2):472-478. (Prospective observational; 125 patients)
  58. Puskar D, Bedalov G, Fridrih S, et al. Urinalysis, ultrasound analysis, and renal dynamic scintigraphy in acute appendicitis. Urology. 1995;45(1):108-112. PubMed PMID: 7817461. (Prospective case-controlled; 84 patients)
  59. Kipper SL, Rypins EB, Evans DG, et al. Neutrophil-specific 99mTc-labeled anti-CD15 monoclonal antibody imaging for diagnosis of equivocal appendicitis. J Nucl Med. 2000;41(3):449-455. PubMed PMID: 10716317. (Review)
  60. Baker SR. Unenhanced helical CT versus plain abdominal radiography: a dissenting opinion. Radiology. 1997;205(1):45-47. (Review)
  61. Mindelzun RE, Jeffrey RB. Unenhanced helical CT for evaluating acute abdominal pain: a little more cost, a lot more information. Radiology. 1997;205(1):43-45. (Review)
  62. Miller RE, Nelson SW. The roentgenologic demonstration of tiny amounts of free intraperitoneal gas: experimental and clinical studies. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1971;112(3):574-585. PubMed PMID: 5570369. (Review)
  63. Stapakis JC, Thickman D. Diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum: abdominal CT vs. upright chest film. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1992;16(5):713-716. PubMed PMID: 1522261. (Prospective observational; 13 patients)
  64. Harris S, Rudolf LE. Mechanical small bowel obstruction due to acute appendicitis: review of 10 cases. Ann Surg. 1966;164(1):157-161. PubMed PMID: 5947287; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1477191. (Case series; 10 patients)
  65. Lane MJ, Liu DM, Huynh MD, et al. Suspected acute appendicitis: nonenhanced helical CT in 300 consecutive patients. Radiology. 1999;213(2):341-346. PubMed PMID: 10551210. (Prospective; 300 patients)
  66. Rao PM, Rhea JT, Rattner DW, et al. Introduction of appendiceal CT: impact on negative appendectomy and appendiceal perforation rates. Ann Surg. 1999;229(3):344-349. PubMed PMID: 10077046; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1191699. (Retrospective; 493 patients)
  67. Terasawa T, Blackmore CC, Bent S, et al. Systematic review: computed tomography and ultrasonography to detect acute appendicitis in adults and adolescents. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(7):537-546. PubMed PMID: 15466771. (Meta-analysis)
  68. Ganguli S, Raptopoulos V, Komlos F, et al. Right lower quadrant pain: value of the nonvisualized appendix in patients at multidetector CT. Radiology. 2006;241(1):175-180. Epub 2006 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 16928971. (Retrospective; 400 patients)
  69. Choi D, Park H, Lee YR, et al. The most useful findings for diagnosing acute appendicitis on contrast-enhanced helical CT. Acta Radiol. 2003;44(6):574-582. PubMed PMID: 14616200. (Retrospective; 71 patients)
  70. Nikolaidis P, Hwang CM, Miller FH, et al. The nonvisualized appendix: incidence of acute appendicitis when secondary inflammatory changes are absent. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183(4):889-892. PubMed PMID: 15385277. (Retrospective;366 patients)
  71. Brown MA. Imaging acute appendicitis. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2008;29(5):293-307. PubMed PMID: 18853837. (Review)
  72. Rao PM, Rhea JT, Novelline RA, et al. Effect of computed tomography of the appendix on treatment of patients and use of hospital resources. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(3):141-146. PubMed PMID: 9428814. (Prospective; 100 patients)
  73. Wilson EB, Cole JC, Nipper ML, et al. Computed tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of appendicitis: when are they indicated? Arch Surg. 2001;136(6):670-675. PubMed PMID: 11387006. (Prospective observational; 99 patients)
  74. Kim K, Rhee JE, Lee CC, et al. Impact of helical computed tomography in clinically evident appendicitis. Emerg Med J. 2008;25(8):477-481. PubMed PMID: 18660392. (Prospective observational; 157 patients)
  75. Krajewski S, Brown J, Phang PT, et al. Impact of computed tomography of the abdomen on clinical outcomes in patients with acute right lower quadrant pain: a meta-analysis. Can J Surg. 2011;54(1):43-53. PubMed PMID: 21251432; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3038359. (Meta-analysis; 9330 patients)
  76. Santos DA, Manunga J Jr, Hohman D, et al. How often does computed tomography change the management of acute appendicitis? Am Surg. 2009;75(10):918-921. PubMed PMID: 19886134. (Retrospective; 100 patients)
  77. Cuschieri J, Florence M, Flum DR, et al. SCOAP Collaborative. Negative appendectomy and imaging accuracy in the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program. Ann Surg. 2008;248(4):557-563. PubMed PMID: 18936568. (Epidemiologic study)
  78. McCollough CH, Schueler BA, Atwell TD, et al. Radiation exposure and pregnancy: when should we be concerned? Radiographics. 2007;27(4):909-918. PubMed PMID: 17620458. (Review)
  79. Rosendahl K, Aukland SM, Fosse K. Imaging strategies in children with suspected appendicitis. Eur Radiol. 2004;14 Suppl 4:L138-L145. PubMed PMID: 14752576. (Review)
  80. Dixon AK, Dendy P. Spiral CT: how much does radiation dose matter? Lancet. 1998;352(9134):1082-1083. PubMed PMID: 9798579. (Review)
  81. Zoetelief J, Geleijns J. Patient doses in spiral CT. Br J Radiol. 1998;71(846):584-586. PubMed PMID: 9849379. (Review)
  82. Shenoy-Bhangle A, Nimkin K, Gee MS. Pediatric imaging: current and emerging techniques. J Postgrad Med. 2010;56(2):98-102. (Review)
  83. Rao PM, Rhea JT, Novelline RA, et al. Helical CT combined with contrast material administered only through the colon for imaging of suspected appendicitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169(5):1275-1280. PubMed PMID: 9353441. (Prospec tive; 100 patients)
  84. Rhea JT, Rao PM, Novelline RA, et al. A focused appendiceal CT technique to reduce the cost of caring for patients with clinically suspected appendicitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169(1):113-118. PubMed PMID: 9207509. (Retrospective; 651 patients)
  85. Garcia Peña BM, Mandl KD, Kraus SJ, et al. Ultrasonography and limited computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of appendicitis in children. JAMA. 1999;282(11):1041-1046. PubMed PMID: 10493202. (Prospective; 139 patients)
  86. Peña BM, Taylor GA. Radiologists’ confidence in interpretation of sonography and CT in suspected pediatric appendicitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;175(1):71-74. PubMed PMID: 10882249. (Prospective; 139 patients)
  87. Fefferman NR, Roche KJ, Pinkney LP, et al. Suspected appendicitis in children: focused CT technique for evaluation. Radiology. 2001;220(3):691-695. PubMed PMID: 11526268. (Retrospective comparative; 93 patients)
  88. Rosen MP, Ding A, Blake MA, et al. Expert Panel on Gastrointestinal Imaging. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® right lower quadrant pain -- suspected appendicitis. [online publication]. Reston (VA): American College of Radiology; 2010. (Clinical guidelines, consensus statement)
  89. Jacobs JE, Birnbaum BA, Macari M, et al. Acute appendicitis: comparison of helical CT diagnosis focused technique with oral contrast material versus nonfocused technique with oral and intravenous contrast material. Radiology. 2001;220(3):683-690. PubMed PMID: 11526267. (Prospective comparative; 229 patients)
  90. Funaki B, Grosskreutz SR, Funaki CN. Using unenhanced helical CT with enteric contrast material for suspected appendicitis in patients treated at a community hospital. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;171(4):997-1001. PubMed PMID: 9762983. (Prospective; 100 patients)
  91. Berg ER, Mehta SD, Mitchell P, et al. Length of stay by route of contrast administration for diagnosis of appendicitis by computed-tomography scan. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(10):1040-1045. Epub 2006 Sep 13. PubMed PMID: 16973641. (Prospective; 112 patients)
  92. Hörmann M, Paya K, Eibenberger K, et al. MR imaging in children with nonperforated acute appendicitis: value of unenhanced MR imaging in sonographically selected cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;171(2):467-470. PubMed PMID: 9694477. (Prospective case series; 45 patients)
  93. Poljak A, Jeffrey RB,Jr, Kernberg ME. The gas-containing appendix: potential sonographic pitfall in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. J Ultrasound Med. 1991;10(11):625-628. (Retrospective; 154 patients)
  94. van Randen A, Bipat S, Zwinderman AH, et al. Acute appendicitis: meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of CT and graded compression US related to prevalence of disease. Radiology. 2008;249(1):97-106. Epub 2008 Aug 5. PubMed PMID: 18682583. (Meta-analysis; 671 patients)
  95. Doria AS, Moineddin R, Kellenberger CJ, et al. US or CT for diagnosis of appendicitis in children and adults? A meta-analysis. Radiology. 2006;241(1):83-94. Epub 2006 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 16928974. (Meta-analysis; 9356 patients)
  96. Keyzer C, Zalcman M, De Maertelaer V, et al. Comparison of US and unenhanced multi-detector row CT in patients suspected of having acute appendicitis. Radiology. 2005;236(2):527-534. PubMed PMID: 16040910. (Prospective; 94 patients)
  97. Hernandez JA, Swischuk LE, Angel CA, et al. Imaging of acute appendicitis: US as the primary imaging modality. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35(4):392-395. Epub 2005 Jan 6. PubMed PMID: 15635471. (Retrospective review; 622 patients)
  98. Patel SJ, Reede DL, Katz DS, et al. Imaging the pregnant patient for nonobstetric conditions: algorithms and radiation dose considerations. Radiographics. 2007;27(6):1705-1722. PubMed PMID: 18025513. (Review)
  99. Laméris W, van Randen A, van Es HW, et al. OPTIMA study group. Imaging strategies for detection of urgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain: diagnostic accuracy study. BMJ. 2009;26;338:b2431. PubMed PMID: 19561056. (Prospective; 1021 patients)
  100. Toorenvliet BR, Wiersma F, Bakker RF, et al. Routine ultrasound and limited computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. World J Surg. 2010;34(10):2278-2285. PubMed PMID: 20582544; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2936677. (Prospective; 802 patients)
  101. Gaitini D, Beck-Razi N, Mor-Yosef D, et al. Diagnosing acute appendicitis in adults: accuracy of color Doppler sonography and MDCT compared with surgery and clinical follow-up. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190(5):1300-1306. PubMed PMID: 18430847. (Retrospective; 420 patients)
  102. McGory ML, Zingmond DS, Tillou A, et al. Negative appendectomy in pregnant women is associated with a substantial risk of fetal loss. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;205(4):534-540. Epub 2007 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 17903726. (Retrospective; 3133 patients)
  103. Lam M, Singh A, Kaewlai R, et al. Magnetic resonance of acute appendicitis: pearls and pitfalls. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2008;37(2):57-66. PubMed PMID: 18295077. (Review)
  104. Cobben L, Groot I, Kingma L, et al. A simple MRI protocol in patients with clinically suspected appendicitis: results in 138 patients and effect on outcome of appendectomy. Eur Radiol. 2009;19(5):1175-1183. Epub 2009 Jan 10. PubMed PMID: 19137303. (Prospective; 138 patients)
  105. Incesu L, Coskun A, Selcuk MB, et al. Acute appendicitis: MR imaging and sonographic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;168(3):669-674. PubMed PMID: 9057512. (Prospective observational; 60 patients)
  106. Hörmann M, Puig S, Prokesch SR et al. MR imaging of the normal appendix in children. Eur Radiol. 2002;12(9):2313-2316. Epub 2002 May 9. PubMed PMID: 12195487. (Prospective case series; 15 patients)
  107. Tkacz JN, Anderson SA, Soto J. MR imaging in gastrointestinal emergencies. Radiographics. 2009;29(6):1767-1780. PubMed PMID: 19959520. (Review)
  108. Pedrosa I, Zeikus EA, Levine D, et al. MR imaging of acute right lower quadrant pain in pregnant and nonpregnant patients. Radiographics. 2007;27(3):721-753. PubMed PMID: 17495289. (Retrospective study)
  109. Kanal E, Barkovich AJ, Bell C, et al. ACR Blue Ribbon Panel on MR Safety. ACR guidance document for safe MR practices: 2007. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(6):1447-1474. PubMed PMID: 17515363. (Clinical guidelines, consensus statement)
  110. Alvarado A. A practical score for the early diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ann Emerg Med. 1986;15:557-564. (Retrospective; 305 patients)
  111. Andersson M, Andersson RE. The appendicitis inflammatory response score: a tool for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis that outperforms the Alvarado score. World J Surg. 2008;32(8):1843-1849. (Prospective randomized controlled; 545 patients)
  112. Ohmann C, Yang Q, Franke C. Diagnostic scores for acute appendicitis. Abdominal Pain Study Group. Eur J Surg 1995;161:273-281. (Prospective observational; 1254 patients)
  113. Gwynn LK. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis: clinical assessment versus computed tomography evaluation. J Emerg Med. 2001;21(2):119-123. (Retrospective validation; 215 patients)
  114. Pouget-Baudry Y, Mucci S, Eyssartier E, et al. The use of the Alvarado score in the management of right lower quadrant abdominal pain in the adult. J Visc Surg. 2010;147(2):e40-e44. Epub 2010 Jun 11. (Prospective validation; 233 patients)
  115. Chan MY, Tan C, Chiu MT, et al. Alvarado score: an admission criterion in patients with right iliac fossa pain. Surgeon. 2003;1(1):39-41. (Prospective observational; 175 patients)
  116. Yildirim E, Karagulle E, Kirbas I, et al. Alvarado scores and pain onset in relation to multislice CT findings in acute appendicitis. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2008;14:14-18. (Evaluation; 143 patients)
  117. Samuel M. Pediatric appendicitis score. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:877-881. (Prospective validation; 1170 patients)
  118. Schneider C, Kharbanda A, Bachur R. Evaluating appendicitis scoring systems using a prospective pediatric cohort. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49(6):778-784,784.e1. Epub 2007 Mar 26. PubMed PMID: 17383771. (Prospective; 588 patients)
  119. Bundy DG, Byerley JS, Liles EA, et al. Does this child have appendicitis? JAMA. 2007 Jul;298(4):438-451. (Review)
  120. Manterola C, Vial M, Moraga J, et al. Analgesia in patients with acute abdominal pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1)(1):CD005660. (Review)
  121. Gallagher EJ, Esses D, Lee C et al. Randomized clinical trial of morphine in acute abdominal pain. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;48(2):150-160,160.e1-4. PubMed PMID: 16953529. (Prospective randomized controlled; 160 patients)
  122. Amoli HA, Golozar A, Keshavarzi S, et al. Morphine analgesia in patients with acute appendicitis: a randomised double-blind clinical trial. Emerg Med J. 2008;25(9):586-589. PubMed PMID: 18723709. (Prospective randomized controlled; 71 patients)
  123. Yuan Y, Chen JY, Guo H, et al. Relief of abdominal pain by morphine without altering physical signs in acute appendicitis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123(2):142-145. (Prospective randomized controlled; 106 patients)
  124. Pace S, Burke TF. Intravenous morphine for early pain relief in patients with acute abdominal pain. Acad Emerg Med. 1996;3(12):1086-1092. PubMed PMID: 8959160. (Prospective randomized controlled; 75 patients)
  125. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM et al. International Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee; American Association of Critical Care Nurses; American College of Chest Physicians; American College of Emergency Physicians; Canadian Critical Care Society; European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; European Society of Intensive Care Medicine; European Respiratory Society; International Sepsis Forum; Japanese Association for Acute Medicine; Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine; Society of Critical Care Medicine; Society of Hospital Medicine; Surgical Infection Society; World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(1):296-327. Erratum in: Crit Care Med. 2008;36(4):1394-1396. PubMed PMID: 18158437. (Clinical guidelines, consensus statement)
  126. Solomkin JS, Mazuski JE, Bradley JS, et al. Diagnosis and management of complicated intra-abdominal infection in adults and children: guidelines by the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(2):133-164. Erratum in: Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(12):1695. Dosage error in article text. PubMed PMID: 20034345. (Clinical guidelines, consensus statement)
  127. Andersen BR, Kallehave FL, Andersen HK. Antibiotics versus placebo for prevention of postoperative infection after appendicectomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(3):CD001439. PubMed PMID: 16034862. (Cochrane review)
  128. Hansson J, Körner U, Khorram-Manesh A, et al. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy versus appendicectomy as primary treatment of acute appendicitis in unselected patients. Br J Surg. 2009;96(5):473-481. Erratum in: Br J Surg. 2009;96(7):830. PubMed PMID: 19358184. (Prospective randomized controlled; 202 patients)
  129. Vons C, Barry C, Maitre S, et al. Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid versus appendicectomy for treatment of acute uncomplicated appendicitis: an open-label, non-inferiority, Retrospecrandomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377(9777):1573-1579. PubMed PMID: 21550483. (Prospective randomized controlled; 243 patients)
  130. Hoffmann J, Lindhard A, Jensen HE. Appendix mass: conservative management without interval appendectomy. Am J Surg. 1984;148(3):379-382. PubMed PMID: 6476230.
  131. Mason RJ. Appendicitis: is surgery the best option? Lancet. 2011 May 7;377(9777):1545-1546. PubMed PMID: 21550468.
  132. Varadhan KK, Humes DJ, Neal KR et al. Antibiotic therapy versus appendectomy for acute appendicitis: a meta-analysis. World J Surg. 2010;34(2):199-209. PubMed PMID: 20041249. (Meta-analysis; 661 patients)
  133. Colson M, Skinner KA, Dunnington G. High negative appendectomy rates are no longer acceptable. Am J Surg. 1997;174(6):723-727. PubMed PMID: 9409605. (Retrospective; 659 patients)
  134. Jones PF. Suspected acute appendicitis: trends in management over 30 years. Br J Surg. 2001;88(12):1570-1577. PubMed PMID: 11736966. (Review)
  135. Abou-Nukta F, Bakhos C, Arroyo K, et al. Effects of delaying appendectomy for acute appendicitis for 12 to 24 hours. Arch Surg. 2006;141(5):504-507. PubMed PMID: 16702523. (Retrospective comparative; 380 patients)
  136. Ditillo MF, Dziura JD, Rabinovici R. Is it safe to delay appendectomy in adults with acute appendicitis? Ann Surg. 2006;244(5):656-660. PubMed PMID: 17060754; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1856602. (Retrospective; 1081 patients)
  137. Temple CL, Huchcroft SA, Temple WJ. The natural history of appendicitis in adults. A prospective study. Ann Surg. 1995;221(3):278-281. PubMed PMID: 7717781; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1234570. (Retrospective; 95 patients)
  138. Ingraham AM, Cohen ME, Bilimoria KY, et al. Effect of delay to operation on outcomes in adults with acute appendicitis. Arch Surg. 2010;145(9):886-892. PubMed PMID: 20855760. (Retrospective cohort; 32,782 patients)
  139. Taylor M, Emil S, Nguyen N, et al. Emergent vs urgent appendectomy in children: a study of outcomes. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40(12):1912-1915. PubMed PMID: 16338317. (Retrospective comparative; 365 patients)
  140. Yardeni D, Hirschl RB, Drongowski RA et al. Delayed versus immediate surgery in acute appendicitis: do we need to operate during the night? J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39(3):464-469. PubMed PMID: 15017571. (Retrospective; 126 patients)
  141. Hansson LE, Laurell H, Gunnarsson U. Impact of time in the development of acute appendicitis. Dig Surg. 2008;25(5):394-399. (Prospective observational; 253 patients)
  142. Punnonen R, Aho AJ, Grönroos M, et al. Appendicectomy during pregnancy. Acta Chir Scand. 1979;145(8):555-558. PubMed PMID: 539341. (Case series; 24 patients)
  143. Mourad J, Elliott JP, Erickson L, et al. Appendicitis in pregnancy: new information that contradicts long-held clinical beliefs. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182(5):1027-1029. PubMed PMID: 10819817. (Retrospective; 66,993 patients)
  144. Cunningham FG, McCubbin JH. Appendicitis complicating pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1975;45(4):415-420. PubMed PMID: 1121371. (Retrospective; 34 patients)
  145. DeVore GR. Acute abdominal pain in the pregnant patient due to pancreatitis, acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, or peptic ulcer disease. Clin Perinatol. 1980;7(2):349-369. PubMed PMID: 7002424. (Review)
  146. Hodjati H, Kazerooni T. Location of the appendix in the gravid patient: a re-evaluation of the established concept. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003;81(3):245-247. (Prospective; 291 patients)
  147. Freeland M, King E, Safcsak K, et al. Diagnosis of appendicitis in pregnancy. Am J Surg. 2009;198(6):753-758. PubMed PMID: 19969125. (Retrospective review; 47 patients)
  148. Singh A, Danrad R, Hahn PF, et al. MR imaging of the acute abdomen and pelvis: acute appendicitis and beyond. Radiographics. 2007;27(5):1419-1431. PubMed PMID: 17848700. (Review)
  149. Birchard KR, Brown MA, Hyslop WB, et al. MRI of acute abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnant patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184(2):452-458. (Prospective; 29 patients
  150. Pedrosa I, Levine D, Eyvazzadeh AD, et al. MR imaging evaluation of acute appendicitis in pregnancy. Radiology. 2006;238(3):891-899. PubMed PMID: 16505393. (Review)
  151. Blumenfield YJ, Wong AE, Jafari A, et al. MR imaging in cases of antenatal suspected appendicitis—a meta-analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011;24(3):485-488. Epub 2010 Aug 9. PubMed PMID: 20695758. (Meta-analysis; 229 patients)
  152. Shellock FG, Crues JV. MR procedures: biologic effects, safety, and patient care. Radiology. 2004;232(3):635-652. Epub 2004 Jul 29. PubMed PMID: 15284433. (Review)
  153. American College of Radiology. ACR practice guideline for imaging pregnant or potentially pregnant adolescents and women with ionizing radiation. Reston, VA: American College of Radiology; 2008 (Res.26). Available at: www.acr.org/secondarymainmenucategories/quality.../rrlinformation.aspx. (Clinical guidelines, consensus statement)
  154. Hurwitz LM, Yoshizumi T, Reiman RE, et al. Radiation dose to the fetus from body MDCT during early gestation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186(3):871-876. PubMed PMID: 16498123. (Biologic model study)
  155. Sivit CJ, Applegate KE, Stallion A, et al. Imaging evaluation of suspected appendicitis in a pediatric population: effectiveness of sonography versus CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;175(4):977-980. PubMed PMID: 11000147. (Prospective observational; 386 patients)
  156. Lowe LH, Penney MW, Stein SM, et al. Unenhanced limited CT of the abdomen in the diagnosis of appendicitis in children: comparison with sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;176(1):31-35. PubMed PMID: 11133533. (Prospective observational; 76 patients)
  157. Hale DA, Molloy M, Pearl RH et al. Appendectomy: a contemporary appraisal. Ann Surg. 1997;225(3):252-261. PubMed PMID: 9060580; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1190674. (Review)
  158. Birnbaum BA, Jeffrey RB Jr. CT and sonographic evaluation of acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;170(2):361-371. PubMed PMID: 9456947. (Review)
  159. Gofrit ON, Abu-Dalu K. Perforated appendicitis in the child: contemporary experience. Isr Med Assoc J. 2001;3(4):262-265. PubMed PMID: 11344838. (Retrospective; 581 patients)
  160. Becker T, Kharbanda A, Bachur R. Atypical clinical features of pediatric appendicitis. Acad Emerg Med. 2007;14(2):124-129. (Prospective; 750 patients)
  161. Rothrock SG, Skeoch G, Rush JJ, et al. Clinical features of misdiagnosed appendicitis in children. Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20(1):45-50. (Retrospective; 181 patients)
  162. Colvin JM, Bachur R, Kharbanda A. The presentation of appendicitis in preadolescent children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007;23(12):849-855. PubMed PMID: 18091591. (Retrospective; 379 patients)
  163. Andersson R, Hugander A, Thulin A, et al. Clusters of acute appendicitis: further evidence for an infectious aetiology. Int J Epidemiol. 1995;24(4):829-833. PubMed PMID: 8550282. (Retrospective; 1155 patients)
  164. Sakellaris G, Tilemis S, Charissis G. Acute appendicitis in preschool-age children. Eur J Pediatr. 2005;164(2):80-83. (Retrospective; 122 children)
  165. Karakas SP, Guelfguat M, Leonidas JC, et al. Acute appendicitis in children: comparison of clinical diagnosis with ultrasound and CT imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2000;30(2):94-98. PubMed PMID: 10663520. (Retrospective; 633 patients)
  166. Dado G, Anania G, Baccarani U, et al. Application of a clinical score for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in childhood: a retrospective analysis of 197 patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2000;35(9):1320-1322. PubMed PMID: 10999688. (Retrospective; 197 patients)
  167. Kaiser S, Frenckner B, Jorulf HK. Suspected appendicitis in children: US and CT—a prospective randomized study. Radiology. 2002;223(3):633-638. PubMed PMID: 12034928. (Prospective randomized controlled)
Get Quick-Read Evidence-Based Updates
Enter your email to get free evidence-based content delivered to your inbox once per month.
Please provide a valid email address.