0

<< An Evidence-Based Approach To Emergency Ultrasound

References

TOC Will Appear Here

References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. American College of Emergency Physicians. Emergency ultrasound guidelines – 2008. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;53:550-570. (Policy statement)
  2. Kristensen JK, Buemann B, Kuhl E. Ultrasonic scanning in the diagnosis of splenic haematomas. Acta Chir Scand. 1971;137(7):653-657.
  3. Kimura A, Otsuka T. Emergency center ultrasonography in the evaluation of hemoperitoneum: a prospective study. J Trauma. 1991;31(1):20-23. (Prospective study; 72 patients)
  4. Tso P, Rodriguez A, Cooper C, et al. Sonography in blunt abdominal trauma: a preliminary progress report. J Trauma. 1992;33(1):39-43. (Prospective study; 163 patients)
  5. Jehle D, Guarino J, Karamanoukian H. Emergency department ultrasound in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. Am J Emerg Med. 1993;11(4):342-346. (Study of 44 patients)
  6. Bode PJ, Niezen RA, van Vugt AB, et al. Abdominal ultrasound as a reliable indicator for conclusive laparotomy in blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma. 1993;34(1):27-31. (Retrospective review; 353 patients)
  7. American College of Surgeons. Advanced trauma life support for physicians. Chicago: ACS; 1997.
  8. Hoff WS, Holevar M, Nagy KK, et al. Practice management guidelines for the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma: the EAST practice management guidelines work group. J Trauma. 2002;53(3):602-615.
  9. ACR Practice Guideline For The Performance Of An Ultrasound Examination Of The Abdomen And/Or Retroperitoneum. http://www.acr.org/SecondaryMainMenuCategories/ quality_safety/guidelines/us/us_abdomen_retro.aspx
  10. Stengel D, Bauwens K, Sehouli J, et al. Emergency ultrasound- based algorithms for diagnosing blunt abdominal trauma (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. February 18, 2008. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2008.
  11. Melniker LA, Leibner E, McKenney MG, et al. Randomized controlled clinical trial of point-of-care, limited ultrasonography for trauma in the emergency department: the first sonography outcomes assessment program trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;48(3):227-235. (Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial; 262 patients)
  12. Branney SW, Moore EE, Cantrill SV, et al. Ultrasound based key clinical pathway reduces the use of hospital resources for the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma. 1997;42(6):1086-1090. (Prospective study; 486 trauma patients vs. 516 historical controls)
  13. Helling TS, Wilson J, Augustosky K. The utility of focused abdominal ultrasound in blunt abdominal trauma: a reappraisal. Am J Surg. 2007;194(6):728-732; discussion 732-723. (Retrospective study; 299 patients)
  14. Plummer D, Brunette D, Asinger R, et al. Emergency department echocardiography improves outcome in penetrating cardiac injury. Ann Emerg Med. 1992;21:709-712. (10-year retrospective study; 49 patients)
  15. Moylan M, Newgart C, Ma J, et al. Association between a positive ED FAST examination and therapeutic laparotomy in normotensive blunt trauma patients. J Emerg Med. 2007;33(3):265- 271. (Retrospective cohort analysis; 1636 patients)
  16. Blaivas M, Lyon M, Duggal S. A prospective comparison of supine chest radiography and bedside ultrasound for the diagnosis of traumatic pneumothorax. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12(9):844-849. (Prospective, single-blinded study with convenience sampling; 176 patients enrolled)
  17. Rowan KR, Kirkpatrick AW, Liu D, et al. Traumatic pneumothorax detection with thoracic US: correlation with chest radiography and CT — initial experience. Radiology. 2002;225(1):210-214. (Prospective analysis; 27 patients)
  18. Soldati G, Testa A, Sher S, et al. Occult traumatic pneumothorax: diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasonography in the emergency department. Chest. 2008;133(1):204-211. (Prospective study; 109 trauma patients)
  19. Soldati G, Testa A, Pignataro G, et al. The ultrasonographic deep sulcus sign in traumatic pneumothorax. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2006;32(8):1157-1163. (186 trauma patients)
  20. Zhang M, Liu ZH, Yang JX, et al. Rapid detection of pneumothorax by ultrasonography in patients with multiple trauma. Crit Care. 2006;10(4):R112. (Prospective study; 135 patients)
  21. Kirkpatrick AW, Sirois M, Laupland KB, et al. Hand-held thoracic sonography for detecting post-traumatic pneumothoraces: the Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (EFAST). J Trauma. 2004;57(2):288-295. (Prospective study; 208 patients)
  22. Lichtenstein DA, Menu Y. A bedside ultrasound sign ruling out pneumothorax in the critically ill. Lung sliding. Chest. 1995;108(5):1345-1348. (43 cases)
  23. Lichtenstein DA, Meziere G, Lascols N, et al. Ultrasound diagnosis of occult pneumothorax. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(6):1231-1238. (Retrospective analysis; ICU patients)
  24. Ma OJ, Mateer JR, Ogata M, et al. Prospective analysis of a rapid trauma ultrasound examination performed by emergency physicians. J Trauma. 1995;38(6):879-885. (Prospective study; 245 patients)
  25. Ma OJ, Mateer JR. Trauma ultrasound examination versus chest radiography in the detection of hemothorax. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29(3):312-316. (Retrospective study; 245 patients)
  26. Sisley AC, Rozycki GS, Ballard RB, et al. Rapid detection of traumatic effusion using surgeon-performed ultrasonography. J Trauma. 1998;44(2):291-297. (Prospective study; 360 patients)
  27. Wustner A, Gehmacher O, Hammerle S, et al. Ultrasound diagnosis in blunt thoracic trauma. Ultraschall Med. 2005;26(4):285-290. (Prospective study; 100 trauma patients)
  28. Brooks A, Davies B, Smethhurst M, et al. Emergency ultrasound in the acute assessment of haemothorax. Emerg Med J. 2004;21(1):44-46. (Prospective study; 61 patients)
  29. Rothlin MA, Naf R, Amgwerd M, et al. Ultrasound in blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma. J Trauma. 1993;34(4):488-495. (Prospective study; 312 trauma patients)
  30. Juhl JH. Diseases of the pleura, mediastinum, and diaphragm. In: Juhl JH, Crummy AB, eds. Essentials of Radiologic Imaging. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott; 1993:1026.
  31. Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography — an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(22):2277-2284.
  32. Einstein AJ, Henzlova MJ, Rajagopalan S. Estimating risk of cancer associated with radiation exposure from 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography. JAMA. 2007;298(3):317-323.
  33. Sodickson A, Baeyens PF, Andriole KP, et al. Recurrent CT, cumulative radiation exposure, and associated radiation- induced cancer risks from CT of adults. Radiology. 2009;251(1):175-184.
  34. Moore C, Promes SB. Ultrasound in pregnancy. In: Rosen CL, Wolfe RE, eds. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America – Ultrasound in Emergency Medicine. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders; 2004:697-722. (Review)
  35. Filly RA. Ectopic pregnancy: the role of sonography. Radiology. 1987;162(3):661-668. (Review)
  36. Abbott J, Emmans LS, Lowenstein SR. Ectopic pregnancy: ten common pitfalls in diagnosis. Am J Emerg Med. 1990;8:515-522. (Retrospective review; 65 patients)
  37. Blaivas M, Sierzenski P, Plecque D, et al. Do emergency physicians save time when locating a live intrauterine pregnancy? Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(9):988-993. (Retrospective chart review; 1419 patients)
  38. Durham B. Emergency medicine physicians saving time with ultrasound. Am J Emerg Med. 1996;14:309-313.(Case Series)
  39. Mateer JR, Valley VT, Aiman EJ, et al. Outcome analysis of a protocol including bedside endovaginal sonography in patients at risk for ectopic pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;27:283-289. (Prospective; convenience sample of 314 patients; 56 historical controls)
  40. Kaplan BC, Dart RG, Moskos M, et al. Ectopic pregnancy: prospective study with improved diagnostic accuracy. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;28:10-17. (Prospective; 481 patients)
  41. Durham B, Lane B, Burbridge L, et al. Pelvic ultrasound performed by emergency physicians for the detection of ectopic pregnancy in complicated first-trimester pregnancies. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29:338-347. (Prospective; 136 patients)
  42. Tayal VS, Cohen H, Norton HJ. Outcome of patients with an indeterminate emergency department first-trimester pelvic ultrasound to rule out ectopic pregnancy. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11:912-917. (Prospective, observational; 1490 patients)
  43. Stein JC, Wang R, Adler N, et al. Emergency physician ultrasonography for evaluating patients at risk for ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2010;56(6):674-683. (Meta-analysis; 2,057 patients, 152 with ectopic pregnancy)
  44. Pennell RG, Needleman L. Prospective comparison of vaginal and abdominal sonography in normal early pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med. 1991;10:63-67.
  45. Dart R. Role of pelvic ultrasonography in evaluation of symptomatic first-trimester pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med. 1999;33:310-320. (Review)
  46. Atri M, Valenti DA, Bret PM, et al. Effect of transvaginal sonography on the use of invasive procedures for evaluating patients with a clinical diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. J Clin Ultrasound. 2003;22(4):409-410. (Retrospective review; 290 patients)
  47. Burgher SW, Tandy TK, Dawdy MR. Transvaginal ultrasonography by emergency physicians decreases patient time in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 1998;5:802-807. (Retrospective analysis; 84 patients)
  48. Shih CH. Effect of emergency physician-performed pelvic sonography on length of stay in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1999;6:1020-1023. (Prospective observational study; 115 patients)
  49. Durston WE, Carl ML, Guerra W, et al. Ultrasound availability in the evaluation of ectopic pregnancy in the ED: comparison of quality and cost-effectiveness with different approaches. Am J Emerg Med. 2000;18(4):408-417. (Retrospective; 120 patients)
  50. Lederle FA, Simel DL. The rational clinical examination. Does this patient have abdominal aortic aneurysm? JAMA. 1999;281:77-82. (Meta-analysis)
  51. Goldberg BB. Aortosonography. Int Surg. 1977;62:294-297.
  52. Dent B, Kendall RJ, Boyle AA, et al. Emergency ultrasound of the abdominal aorta by UK emergency physicians: A prospective cohort study. Emerg Med J. 2007;24:547-549. (Prospective cohort study)
  53. Costantino TG, Bruno EC, Handly N, et al. Accuracy of emergency medicine ultrasound in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Emerg Med. 2005;29:455-460. (238 patients)
  54. Knaut AL, Kendall JL, Patten R, et al. Ultrasonographic measurement of aortic diameter by emergency physicians approximates results obtained by computed tomography. J Emerg Med. 2005;28:119-126. (104 patients)
  55. Tayal VS, Graf CD, Gibbs MA. Prospective study of accuracy and outcome of emergency ultrasound for abdominal aortic aneurysm over two years. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10:867-871. (Prospective study; 125 patients)
  56. Ashton HA, Buxton MJ, Day NE, et al. The Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study (MASS) into the effect of abdominal aortic aneurysm screening on mortality in men: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360:1531-1539. (Randomized, controlled trial of screening)
  57. Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study Group. MulticentreAneurysm Screening Study (MASS): Cost effectiveness analysis of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms based on four year results from randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2002;325:1135-1141. (Randomized, controlled trial of screening; 67,800 males; follow-up analysis)
  58. Cosford PA, Leng GC. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD002945. (Review)
  59. Moore CL, Holliday RS, Hwang JQ, et al. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in asymptomatic at-risk patients using emergency ultrasound. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26:883- 887. (Screening study; 179 patients)
  60. Catalano O, Lobianco R, Cusati B, et al. Contrast-enhanced sonography for diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184:423-427. (Case series)
  61. Catalano O, Sandomenico F, Raso MM, et al. Real-time, contrast-enhanced sonography: a new tool for detecting active bleeding. J Trauma. 2005;59:933-939. (Case series)
  62. Fojtik JP, Costantino TG, Dean AJ. The diagnosis of aortic dissection by emergency medicine ultrasound. J Emerg Med. 2007;32:191-196. (Case series)
  63. Blaivas M, Sierzenski PR. Dissection of the proximal thoracic aorta: A new ultrasonographic sign in the subxiphoid view. Am J Emerg Med. 2002;20:344-348. (Case series)
  64. Jolly BT, Massarin E, Pigman EC. Color Doppler ultrasonography by emergency physicians for the diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombosis. Acad Emerg Med. 1997;4:129-132. (Retrospective, observational review; 25 patients)
  65. Burnside PR, Brown MD, Kline JA. Systematic review of emergency physician–performed ultrasonography for lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis. Acad Emerg Med. 2008;15:493-498. (Systematic review and meta-analysis; 6 articles, 936 patients)
  66. Jacoby J, Cesta M, Axelband J, et al. Can emergency medicine residents detect acute deep venous thrombosis with a limited, two-site ultrasound examination? J Emerg Med. 2007;32:197-200. (Prospective; 121 extremities scanned)
  67. Magazzini S, Vanni S, Toccafondi S, et al. Duplex ultrasound in the emergency department for the diagnostic management of clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis. Acad Emerg Med. 2007;14:216-220. (Prospective; 399 patients)
  68. Theodoro D, Blaivas M, Duggal S, et al. Real-time B-mode ultrasound in the ED saves time in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Am J Emerg Med. 2004;22:197-200. (Prospective, single-blind observational study; 156 patients)
  69. Jang T, Docherty M, Aubin C, et al. Resident-performed compression ultrasonography for the detection of proximal deep vein thrombosis: fast and accurate. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11:319-322. (Prospective, observational; 72 patients)
  70. Frazee BW, Snoey ER, Levitt A. Emergency department compression ultrasound to diagnose proximal deep vein thrombosis. J Emerg Med. 2001;20:107-112. (Prospective, observational; 76 patients)
  71. Blaivas M, Lambert MJ, Harwood RA, et al. Lower-extremity Doppler for deep venous thrombosis — can emergency physicians be accurate and fast? Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7:120-126. (Prospective; 112 patients)
  72. Kline JA, O’Malley PM, Tayal VS, et al. Emergency clinicianperformed compression ultrasonography for deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity. Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Oct;52(4):437-445. (Prospective; 183 patients)
  73. Biondetti PR, Vigo M, Tomasella G, et al. Diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis of the legs: accuracy of ultrasonography using vein compression. Radiol Med.1990;80(4):463-468. (Prospective; 171 patients)
  74. Bernardi E, Camporese G, Büller HR, et al. Erasmus Study Group. Serial 2-point ultrasonography plus D-dimer vs whole-leg color-coded Doppler ultrasonography for diagnosing suspected symptomatic deep vein thrombosis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;300(14):1653-1659. (Prospective, randomized, multicenter; 2098 patients)
  75. Philbrick JT, Becker DM. Calf deep venous thrombosis: a wolf in sheep’s clothing? Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:2131– 2138. (Analytic review)
  76. Kearon C, Ginsberg JS, Douketis J, et al. A randomized trial of diagnostic strategies after normal proximal vein ultrasonography for suspected deep venous thrombosis: D-dimer testing compared with repeated ultrasonography. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:490-496. (Randomized, multicenter; 801 patients)
  77. McIlrath ST, Blaivas M, Lyon M. Patient follow-up after negative lower extremity bedside ultrasound for deep venous thrombosis in the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2006;24:325-328. (Prospective; 85 patients)
  78. Pennell RC, Mantese VA, Westfall SG. Duplex scan for deep vein thrombosis — defining who needs an examination of the contralateral asymptomatic leg. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48:413-416. (Prospective; 239 patients)
  79. Squire BT, Fox JC, Anderson, C. ABSCESS: applied bedside sonography for convenient evaluation of superficial soft tissue infections. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12:601-606. (Prospective; 107 patients)
  80. Tayal VS, Hasan N, Norton HJ, et al. The effect of soft-tissue ultrasound on the management of cellulitis in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13:384-388. (Prospective; 126 patients)
  81. Ramirez-Schrempp D, Dorfman DH, Baker WE, et al. Ultrasound soft-tissue applications in the pediatric emergency department: to drain or not to drain? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25:44-48. (Review)
  82. Araujo Filho BC, Sakae FA, Sennes LU, et al. Intraoral and transcutaneous cervical ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of peritonsillar cellulitis and abscesses. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;72:377-381. (Prospective; 39 patients)
  83. Blaivas M, Theodoro D, Duggal S. Ultrasound-guided drainage of peritonsillar abscess by the emergency physician. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21:155-158. (Case series)
  84. Lyon M, Blaivas M. Intraoral ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of suspected peritonsillar abscess in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12:85-88. (Retrospective review; 43 patients)
  85. Blankstein A, Cohen I, Heiman Z, et al. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic modality and therapeutic adjuvant in the management of soft tissue foreign bodies in the lower extremities. Isr Med Assoc J. 2001;3:411-413. (Case series; 21 patients)
  86. Blankstein A, Cohen I, Heiman Z, et al. Localization, detection and guided removal of soft tissue in the hands using sonography. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2000;120:514-517. (Case series, 12 patients)
  87. Bray PW, Mahoney JL, Campbell JP. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in the diagnosis of foreign bodies in the hand. J Hand Surg [Am]. 1995;20:661-666. (Prospective; 315 sites)
  88. Hill R, Conron R, Greissinger P, et al. Ultrasound for the detection of foreign bodies in human tissue. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29:353-356. (Prospective; 80 sites)
  89. Crystal CS, Masneri DA, Hellums JS, et al. Bedside ultrasound for the detection of soft tissue foreign bodies: a cadaveric study. J Emerg Med. 2009;36:377-380. (Prospective; 900 examinations)
  90. Orlinsky M, Knittel P, Feit T, et al. The comparative accuracy of radiolucent foreign body detection using ultrasonography. Am J Emerg Med. 2000;18:401-403. (Prospective; 114 sites, 57 foreign bodies)
  91. Sargsyan AE, Dulchavsky AG, Adams J, et al. Ultrasound detection of simulated intra-ocular foreign bodies by minimally trained personnel. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008;79:58-61. (Prospective; 14 patients)
  92. Wiler JL, Costantino TG, Filippone L, et al. Comparison of ultrasound-guided and standard landmark techniques for knee arthrocentesis. J Emerg Med. 2010;39(1):78-82. (Prospective, randomized, controlled trial; 66 patients)
  93. Tsung JW, Blaivas M. Emergency department diagnosis of pediatric hip effusion and guided arthrocentesis using point-of-care ultrasound. J Emerg Med. 2008;35:393-399. (Case series)
  94. Freeman K, Dewitz A, Baker WE. Ultrasound-guided hip arthrocentesis in the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:80-86. (Case series)
  95. Roy S, Dewitz A, Paul I. Ultrasound-assisted ankle arthrocentesis. Am J Emerg Med. 1999;17:300-301. (Case report)
  96. Marshburn TH, Legome E, Sargsyan A, et al. Goal-directed ultrasound in the detection of long-bone fractures. J Trauma. 2004;57:329-332. (Prospective; 58 patients)
  97. Dulchavsky SA, Schwarz KL, Kirkpatrick AW, et al. Advanced ultrasonic diagnosis of extremity trauma: the FASTER examination. J Trauma. 2002;53:28-32. (Prospective; 158 examinations)
  98. Rainer TH, Griffith JF, Lam E, et al. Comparison of thoracic ultrasound, clinical acumen, and radiography in patients with minor chest injury. J Trauma. 2004;56:1211-1213. (Prospective; 88 patients)
  99. Chen L, Kim Y, Moore CL. Diagnosis and guided reduction of forearm fractures in children using bedside ultrasound. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007;23:528-531. (Prospective; 68 patients)
  100. McGwin G Jr, Xie A, Owsley C. Rate of eye injury in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:970-976. (Comprehensive estimate and review)
  101. Ma OJ, Mateer JR, Blaivas M. Emergency Ultrasound. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2007.
  102. Lizzi FL, Coleman DJ. History of ophthalmic ultrasound. J Ultrasound Med. 2004;23:1255-1266. (Review)
  103. Blaivas M. Bedside emergency department ultrasonography in the evaluation of ocular pathology. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7:947-950. (Brief report of case series)
  104. Blaivas M, Theodoro D, Sierzenski PR. A study of bedside ocular ultrasonography in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9:791-799. (Prospective observational study; 61 patients)
  105. Chiao L, Sharipov S, Sargsyan AE, et al. Ocular examination for trauma; clinical ultrasound aboard the International Space Station. J Trauma. 2005;58:885-889. (Case report)
  106. Sawyer MN. Ultrasound imaging of penetrating ocular trauma. J Emerg Med. 2009;36:181-182. (Case report)
  107. Shiver SA, Lyon M, Blaivas M. Detection of metallic ocular foreign bodies with handheld sonography in a porcine model. J Ultrasound Med. 2005;24:1341-1346. (Prospective randomized pig model study; 28 eyes used)
  108. Blehar DJ, Gaspari RJ, Montoya A, et al. Correlation of visual axis and coronal axis measurements of the optic nerve sheath diameter. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27:407-411. (Prospective; 27 subjects)
  109. Tayal VS, Neulander M, Norton HJ, et al. Emergency department sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter to detect findings of increased intracranial pressure in adult head injury patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49:508-514. (Prospective, blinded, observational study; 59 patients)
  110. Johnston DE, Kaplan MM. Pathogenesis and treatment of gallstones. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1855. (Review)
  111. Trowbridge RL, Rutkowski NK, Shojania KG. Does this patient have acute cholecystitis? JAMA. 2003;289:80-86. (Meta-analysis; 17 studies)
  112. Strasberg SM. Clinical practice. Acute calculous cholecystitis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2804-2811. (Review)
  113. Ralls PW, Colletti PM, Lapin SA, et al. Real-time sonography in suspected acute cholecystitis. Prospective evaluation of primary and secondary signs. Radiology. 1985;155:767-771. (Prospective; 497 patients)
  114. Kendall JL, Shimp RJ. Performance and interpretation of focused right upper quadrant ultrasound by emergency physicians. J Emerg Med. 2001;21:7-13. (Prospective; 109 patients)
  115. Rosen CL, Brown DF, Chang Y, et al. Ultrasonography by emergency physicians in patients with suspected cholecystitis. Am J Emerg Med. 2001;19:32-36. (Prospective; 116 patients)
  116. Gaspari RJ, Dickman E, Blehar D. Learning curve of bedside ultrasound of the gallbladder. J Emerg Med. 2009;37(1):51-56. (Prospective, descriptive; 352 patients)
  117. Jang T, Aubin C, Naunheim R. Minimum training for right upper quadrant ultrasonography. Am J Emerg Med. 2004;22:439-443. (Retropsective review; 224 patients)
  118. Blaivas M, Harwood RA, Lambert MJ. Decreasing length of stay with emergency ultrasound examination of the gallbladder. Acad Emerg Med. 1999;6:1020-1023. (Retrospective chart review; 753 patients)
  119. Leung J, Duffy M, Finckh A. Real-time ultrasonographically guided internal jugular vein catheterization in the emergency department increases success rates and reduces complications: a randomized, prospective study. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;48(5):540-547. (Prospective, randomized study, 130 patients)
  120. Karakitsos D, Labropoulos N, De Groot E, et al. Real-time ultrasound-guided catheterisation of the internal jugular vein: a prospective comparison with the landmark technique in critical care patients. Crit Care. 2006;10(6):R162. (Prospective, randomized study; 900 patients)
  121. Slama M, Novara A, Safavian A, et al. Improvement of internal jugular vein cannulation using an ultrasound-guided technique. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23(8):916-919. (Prospective, randomized study in ICU setting, 79 patients)
  122. Hind D, Calvert N, McWilliams R, et al. Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2003;327(7411):361. (Systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs; 18 trials, 1648 participants)
  123. Randolph AG, Cook DJ, Gonzales CA, et al. Ultrasound guidance for placement of central venous catheters: a metaanalysis of the literature. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(12):2053- 2058. (Meta-analysis; 8 RCTs identified)
  124. Milling TJ Jr, Rose J, Briggs WM, et al. Randomized, controlled clinical trial of point-of-care limited ultrasonography assistance of central venous cannulation: the Third Sonography Outcomes Assessment Program (SOAP-3) Trial. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(8):1764-1769. (Prospective, randomized, controlled trial; 201 patients)
  125. Miller AH, Roth BA, Mills TJ, et al. Ultrasound guidance versus the landmark technique for the placement of central venous catheters in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(8):800-805. (Prospective, randomized study; 122 patients)
  126. Sharma A, Bodenham AR, Mallick A. Ultrasound-guided infraclavicular axillary vein cannulation for central venous access. Br J Anaesth. 2004;93(2):188-192. (Observational study; 200 consecutive patients)
  127. Skolnick ML. The role of sonography in the placement and management of jugular and subclavian central venous catheters. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994;163(2):291-295. (Review article)
  128. Hughes P, Scott C, Bodenham A. Ultrasonography of the femoral vessels in the groin: implications for vascular access. Anaesthesia. 2000;55(12):1198-1202. (Review article)
  129. Kwon TH, Kim YL, Cho DK. Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the femoral vein for acute haemodialysis access. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997;12(5):1009-1012. (Prospective evaluation; 28 patients compared with 38 historic controls)
  130. Blaivas M. Video analysis of accidental arterial cannulation with dynamic ultrasound guidance for central venous access. J Ultrasound Med. 2009;28:1239-1244. (Case series)
  131. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Evidence report/technology assessment, No. 43: Making health care safer: a critical analysis of patient safety practices. Chapter 21: Ultrasound guidance of central vein catheterization. AHRQ Publication No. 01-E058. http://www.ahrq.gov/ clinic/ptsafety
  132. Mayo PH, Beaulieu Y, Doelken P, et al. American College of Chest Physicians/La Société de Réanimation de Langue Française statement on competence in critical care ultrasonography. Chest. 2009;135(4):1050-1060. (Practice statement)
  133. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Guidance on the use of ultrasound locating devices for placing central venous catheters. Technology Appraisal Guidance No. 49 (2002) September. http://www.nice.org.uk.
  134. Goldberg BB, Goodman GA, Clearfield HR. Evaluation of ascites by ultrasound. Radiology. 1970;96(1):15-22.
  135. Williams JW Jr, Simel DL. The rational clinical examination. Does this patient have ascites? How to divine fluid in the abdomen. JAMA. 1992;267(19):2645-2648. (Case series)
  136. Goldberg BB, Clearfield HR, Goodman GA, et al. Ultrasonic determination of ascites. Arch Intern Med. 1973;131(2):217-220.
  137. Bard C, Lafortune M, Breton G. Ascites: ultrasound guidance or blind paracentesis? CMAJ. 1986;135(3):209-210. (Observational study; 27 patients)
  138. Nazeer SR, Dewbre H, Miller AH. Ultrasound-assisted paracentesis performed by emergency physicians vs the traditional technique: a prospective, randomized study. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23(3):363-367. (Prospective, randomized study; 100 patients)
  139. Lichtenstein DA. Ultrasound in the management of thoracic disease. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(5 Suppl):S250-261. (Review)
  140. Lichtenstein DA, Meziere GA. Relevance of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute respiratory failure: the BLUE protocol. Chest. 2008;134(1):117-125.
  141. Lichtenstein D, Goldstein I, Mourgeon E, et al. Comparative diagnostic performances of auscultation, chest radiography, and lung ultrasonography in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology. 2004;100(1):9-15. (32 ICU patients and 10 healthy volunteers)
  142. Weingardt JP, Guico RR, Nemcek AA Jr, et al. Ultrasound findings following failed, clinically directed thoracenteses. J Clin Ultrasound. 1994;22(7):419-426. (Prospective; 26 patients)
  143. Sassoon CS, Light RW, O’Hara VS, et al. Iatrogenic pneumothorax: etiology and morbidity. Results of a Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study. Respiration. 1992;59(4):215-220. (Retrospective review; 538 patients)
  144. Despars JA, Sassoon CS, Light RW. Significance of iatrogenic pneumothoraces. Chest. 1994;105(4):1147-1150. (Retrospective review; 5-year, single-center study)
  145. Grogan DR, Irwin RS, Channick R, et al. Complications associated with thoracentesis. A prospective, randomized study comparing three different methods. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150(4):873- 877. (Randomized, prospective study; 52 patients)
  146. Bartter T, Mayo PD, Pratter MR, et al. Lower risk and higher yield for thoracentesis when performed by experienced operators. Chest. 1993;103(6):1873-1876. (Observational study; 50 patients)
  147. Jones PW, Moyers JP, Rogers JT, et al. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis: is it a safer method? Chest. 2003;123(2):418-423. (Prospective descriptive study; 941 thoracenteses)
  148. Barnes TW, Morgenthaler TI, Olson EJ, et al. Sonographically guided thoracentesis and rate of pneumothorax. J Clin Ultrasound. 2005;33(9):442-446. (Retrospective review; 450 thoracenteses performed, 305 with sonographic guidance)
  149. Lichtenstein D, Hulot JS, Rabiller A, et al. Feasibility and safety of ultrasound-aided thoracentesis in mechanically ventilated patients. Intensive Care Med. 1999;25(9):955-958. (Feasibility and safety study; 40 ICU patients; no comparison group)
  150. O’Moore PV, Mueller PR, Simeone JF, et al. Sonographic guidance in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in the pleural space. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987;149(1):1-5. (Descriptive case series; 187 diagnostic and therapeutic thoracic interventions)
  151. Spodick DH. Acute cardiac tamponade. N Engl J Med. 14 2003;349(7):684-690. (Review)
  152. Wong B, Murphy J, Chang CJ, et al. The risk of pericardiocentesis. Am J Cardiol. 1979;44(6):1110-1114. (Case review; 52 patients)
  153. Callahan JA, Seward JB, Nishimura RA, et al. Two-dimensional echocardiographically guided pericardiocentesis: experience in 117 consecutive patients. Am J Cardiol. 1985;55(4):476-479. (Observational study; 117 patients)
  154. Callahan JA, Seward JB. Pericardiocentesis guided by two-dimensional echocardiography. Echocardiography. 1997;14(5):497-504. (Descriptive, observational, single-center study; 610 cases over 14 years)
  155. Maggiolini S, Bozzano A, Russo P, et al. Echocardiographyguided pericardiocentesis with probe-mounted needle: report of 53 cases. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2001;14(8):821-824. (Descriptive, observational study; 53 procedures in 48 patients)
  156. Vayre F, Lardoux H, Pezzano M, et al. Subxiphoid pericardiocentesis guided by contrast two-dimensional echocardiography in cardiac tamponade: experience of 110 consecutive patients. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2000;1(1):66-71. (110 patients with tamponade)
  157. Tsang TS, Enriquez-Sarano M, Freeman WK, et al. Consecutive 1127 therapeutic echocardiographically guided pericardiocenteses: clinical profile, practice patterns, and outcomes spanning 21 years. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77(5):429- 436. (Registry data)
  158. Tsang TS, El-Najdawi EK, Seward JB, et al. Percutaneous echocardiographically guided pericardiocentesis in pediatric patients: evaluation of safety and efficacy. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1998;11(11):1072-1077. (Retrospective review of registry; 73 patients)
  159. Osranek M, Bursi F, O’Leary PW, et al. Hand-carried ultrasound- guided pericardiocentesis and thoracentesis. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2003;16(5):480-484. (Prospective, observational study; 9 patients)
  160. Rosen CL, Brown DFM, Sagarin M, et al. Ultrasonography by emergency physicians in detecting hydronephrosis in patients with suspected ureteral colic. Acad Emerg Med. 1996;3:541. (Abstract)
  161. Gaspari RJ, Horst K. Emergency ultrasound and urinalysis in the evaluation of flank pain. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12:1180-1184. Prospective, observational; 104 patients)
  162. Pepe P, Motta L, Pennisi M, et al. Functional evaluation of the urinary tract by color-Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) in 100 patients with renal colic. Eur J Radiol. 2005;53(1):131-135. (Prospective; 100 patients)
  163. Cvitkovic KuzmicA, Brkljacic B, Rados M, et al. Doppler visualization of ureteric jets in unilateral hydronephrosis in children and adolescents. Eur J Radiol. 2001;39(3):209-214. (Prospective; 27 patients)
  164. Nelson W, Behrman R, Kliegman R, et al. Nelson’s Textbook of Pediatrics. 15th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 1995:1530.
  165. Kiely EA, Hartnell GG, Gibson RN, et al. Measurement of bladder volume by real-time ultrasound. Br J Urol. 1987;60:33-35. (Prospective; 18 patients)
  166. Roehrborn CG, Peters PC. Can transabdominal ultrasound estimation of postvoiding residual replace catheterization? Urology. 1988;31(5):445-449. (Prospective; 81 patients)
  167. Ireton RC, Krieger JN, Cardenas DD, et al. Bladder volume determination using a dedicated, portable ultrasound scanner. J Urol. 1990;143:9(5):909-911. (Prospective; 164 measurements)
  168. Chan H. Noninvasive bladder volume measurement. J Neurosci Nurs. 1993;25:309. (Prospective; 90 examinations)
  169. Chen L, Hsiao AL, Moore CL, et al. Utility of bedside bladder ultrasound before urethral catheterization in young children. Pediatrics. 2005;115(1):108-111. (Prospective; 90 examinations)
  170. Milling TJ Jr, Van Amerongen R, Melville L, et al. Use of ultrasonography to identify infants for whom urinary catheterization will be unsuccessful because of insufficient urine volume: validation of the urinary bladder index. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;45(5):510-513. (Prospective; 44 patients)
  171. Witt M, Baumann BM, McCans K. Bladder ultrasound increases catheterization success in pediatric patients. Acad Emerg Med. 1991;20(6):631-635. (Randomized controlled trial; 64 patients)
  172. Gochman RF, Karasic RB, Heller MB. Use of portable ultrasound to assist urine collection by suprapubic aspiration. Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20(6):631-635. (Randomized controlled trial; 66 patients)
  173. Munir V, Barnett P, South M. Does the use of volumetric bladder ultrasound improve the success rate of suprapubic aspiration of urine? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2002;18:346-349. (Prospective 2-phase study; 31 patients in phase 1, 75 patients in phase 2)
  174. Chu RW, Wong YC, Luk SH, et al. Comparing suprapubic urine aspiration under real-time ultrasound guidance with conventional blind aspiration. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(5):512- 516. (Prospective, randomized controlled trial; 60 patients)
  175. Kiernan SC, Pinckert TL, Keszler M. Ultrasound guidance of suprapubic bladder aspiration in neonates. J Pediatr. 1993;123(5):789-791. (Prospective, randomized trial; 53 patients)
  176. Hauser AM. The emerging role of echocardiography in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1989;18:1298-1303. (Review)
  177. Mayron R, Gaudio FE, Plummer D, et al. Echocardiography performed by emergency physicians: impact on diagnosis and therapy. Ann Emerg Med. 1988;17:150-154. (Review and case series)
  178. Moore CL. Special Contribution: Current Issues with Emergency Cardiac Ultrasound Probe and Image Conventions. Acad Emerg Med. 2008;15(3):278-284.
  179. Kimura BJ, Bocchicchio M, Willis CL, et al. Screening cardiac ultrasonographic examination in patients with suspected cardiac disease in the emergency department. Am Heart J. 2001;142(2):324-330. (Prospective; 124 patients)
  180. Stahmer SA. The ASE position statement in echocardiography in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7:306-308.
  181. Rose JS, Bair AE, Mandavia D, et al. The UHP ultrasound protocol: a novel ultrasound approach to the empiric evaluation of the undifferentiated hypotensive patient. Am J Emerg Med. 2001;19:299-302. (Description of protocol)
  182. Jones AE, Tayal VS, Sullivan DM, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of immediate versus delayed goal-directed ultrasound to identify the cause of nontraumatic hypotension in emergency department patients. Crit Care Med. 2004;32(8):1798-1800. (Randomized controlled trial; 184 patients)
  183. Blaivas M. Incidence of pericardial effusion in patients presenting to the emergency department with unexplained dyspnea. Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8:1143-1146. (Prospective, observational; 103 patients)
  184. Mandavia DP, Hoffner RJ, Mahaney K, et al. Bedside echocardiography by emergency physicians. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;38(4):377-382. (Prospective; 515 patients enrolled, 103 with pericardial effusions)
  185. Blaivas M, Fox J. Outcome in cardiac arrest patients found to have cardiac standstill on the bedside emergency department echocardiogram. Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8:616-621. (Prospective; 169 patients)
  186. Jones AE, Tayal VS, Kline JA. Focused training of emergency medicine residents in goal-directed echocardiography: a prospective study. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10:1054-1058. (Prospective, observational; 51 patients)
  187. Labovitz AJ, Noble VE, Bierig M, et al. Focused cardiac ultrasound in the emergent setting: a consensus statement of the American Society of Echocardiography and American College of Emergency Physicians. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010;23(12):1225-1230.
  188. Moore CL, Rose GA, Tayal VS, et al. Determination of left ventricular function by emergency physician echocardiography of hypotensive patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9:186- 193. (Prospective, observational, educational; 21 residents enrolled)
  189. Martin RP, Rakowski H, French J, et al. Localization of pericardial effusion with wide angle phased array echocardiography. Am J Cardiol. 1978;42:904-912. (Prospective; 56 patients)
  190. Mazurek B, Jehle D, Martin M. Emergency department echocardiography in the diagnosis and therapy of cardiac tamponade. J Emerg Med. 1991;9:27-31. (Case report)
  191. Levine MJ, Lorell BH, Diver DJ, et al. Implications of echocardiographically assisted diagnosis of pericardial tamponade in contemporary medical patients: detection before hemodynamic embarrassment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991;17:59-65. (Prospective; 54 patients)
  192. Tsang TSM, Oh JK, Seward JB. Diagnosis and management of cardiac tamponade in the era of echocardiography. Clin Cardiol. 1999;22:446-452. (Review)
  193. Blaivas M, Graham S, Lambert MJ. Impending cardiac tamponade: an unseen danger? Am J Emerg Med. 2000;18:339-340. (Correspondence, case series)
  194. Shabetai R. Pericardial effusion: haemodynamic spectrum. Heart. 2004;90:255-256. (Mini-symposium)
  195. Otto CM. Textbook of Clinical Echocardiography. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier– Saunders; 2004. (Textbook)
  196. ASE Committee Recommendations. Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography’s Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, Developed in Conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a Branch of the European Society of Cardiology. J Am Soc Echocardiography. 2005;18(12):1440-1463.
  197. Tayal VS, Kline JA. Emergency echocardiography to detect pericardial effusion in patients in PEA and near-PEA states. Resuscitation. 2003;59(3):315-318. (Prospective, observational; 20 patients)
  198. Plummer D, Brunette D, Asinger R, et al. Emergency department echocardiography improves outcome in penetrating cardiac injury. Ann Emerg Med. 1192;26:709-712. (Retrospective review; 49 patients)
  199. Gillam LD, Guyer DE, Gibson TC, et al. Hydrodynamic compression of the right atrium: a new echocardiographic sign of cardiac tamponade. Circulation. 1983;68:294-301. (Prospective; 127 patients)
  200. Nazeyrollas P, Metz D, Jolly D, et al. Use of transthoracic echocardiography combined with clinical and electrocardiographic data to predict acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J. 1996;17:779-786. (Prospective; 132 patients)
  201. Kasper W, Konstantinides S, Geibel A, et al. Prognostic significance of right ventricular afterload stress detected by echocardiography in patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. Heart. 1997;77:346-349. (Prospective; 317 patients)
  202. Ribeiro A, Lindmarler P, Juhlin-Dannfelt A, et al. Echocardiography Doppler in pulmonary embolism: right ventricular dysfunction as a predictor of mortality rate. Am Heart J. 1997;134:479-487. (Prospective; 126 patients)
Get Quick-Read Evidence-Based Updates
Enter your email to get free evidence-based content delivered to your inbox once per month.
Please provide a valid email address.