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<< Pediatric Influenza In The Emergency Department Setting

References

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References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available.

  1. Nicholson KG, Wood JM, Zambon M. Influenza. Lancet. 2003;362(9397):1733-1745. (General overview of influenza)
  2. Izurieta HS, Thompson WW, Kramarz P, et al. Influenza and the rates of hospitalization for respiratory disease among infants and young children. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(4):232-239. (Influenza viral surveillance data over 5 years)
  3. Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, et al. The underrecognized burden of influenza in young children. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(1):31-40. (Epidemiologic study based on parental surveys and medical record reviews)
  4. Bourgeois FT, Valim C, Wei JC, et al. Influenza and other respiratory virus-related emergency department visits among young children. Pediatrics. 2006;118(1):e1-e8. (11-year estimated data study)
  5. Ploin D, Gillet Y, Morfin F, et al. Influenza burden in febrile infants and young children in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(2):142-147. (Prospective study; 575 children)
  6. Fairbrother G, Cassedy A, Ortega-Sanchez IR, et al; New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN). High costs of influenza: direct medical costs of influenza disease in young children. Vaccine. 2010;28(31):4913-4919.
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Types of influenza viruses. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/types.htm. Accessed September 25, 2010.
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009-10 influenza prevention & control recommendations: clinical signs and symptoms of influenza. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/acip/ clinical.htm. Accessed September 25, 2010.
  9. Silvennoinen H, Peltola V, Lehtinen P, et al. Clinical presentation of influenza in unselected children treated as outpatients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(5):372-375. (Prospective study; 2231 patients)
  10. Glezen WP. Emerging infections: pandemic influenza. Epidemiol Rev. 1996;18(1):64-76. (Epidemiologic history)
  11. Ampofo K, Bender J, Sheng X, et al. Seasonal invasive pneumococcal disease in children: role of preceding respiratory viral infection. Pediatrics. 2008;122(2):229-237. (Retrospective study; 435 children)
  12. McCullers JA, Bartmess KC. Role of neuraminidase in lethal synergism between influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Infect Dis. 2003;187(6):1000-1009. (Animal model; mice tissue)
  13. Margolis P, Gadomski A. The rational clinical examination. Does this infant have pneumonia? JAMA. 1998 Jan 28;279(4):308-13.
  14. Thompson WW, Shay DK, Weintraub E, et al. Influenzaassociated hospitalizations in the United States. JAMA. 2004;292(11):1333-1340. (National survey and WHO data over 20 years)
  15. Finelli L, Fiore A, Dhara R, et al. Influenza-associated pediatric mortality in the United States: increase of Staphylococcus aureus coinfection. Pediatrics. 2008;122(4):805-811.
  16. Krief WI, Levine DA, Platt SL, et al. Influenza virus infection and the risk of serious bacterial infections in young febrile infants. Pediatrics. 2009;124(1):30-39. (Multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional study; 1091 infants enrolled)
  17. Byington CL, Enriquez FR, Hoff C, et al. Serious bacterial infections in febrile infants 1 to 90 days old with and without viral infections. Pediatrics. 2004;113 (6):1662-1666. (Prospective study; 1779 children)
  18. Smitherman HF, Caviness AC, Macias CG. Retrospective review of serious bacterial infections in infants who are 0 to 36 months of age and have influenza A infection. Pediatrics. 2005;115(3):710-718. (Retrospective medical record review)
  19. Poehling KA, Zhu Y, Tang YW, et al. Accuracy and impact of a point-of-care rapid influenza test in young children with respiratory illnesses. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(7):713-718. (Randomized surveillance data; 468 children)
  20. Cruz AT, Demmler-Harrison GJ, Caviness AC, et al. Performance of a rapid influenza test in children during the H1N1 2009 influenza A outbreak. Pediatrics. 2010;125(3):e645-e650.
  21. Bonner AB, Monroe KW, Talley LI, et al. Impact of the rapid diagnosis of influenza on physician decision-making and patient management in the pediatric emergency department: results of a randomized, prospective, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2003;112(2):363-367. (Prospective study in an ED; 418 children)
  22. Iyer SB, Gerber MA, Pomerantz WJ, et al. Effect of point-ofcare influenza testing on management of febrile children. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(12):1259-1268. (Prospective, quasirandomized, controlled trial; 700 children)
  23. Noyola DE, Demmler GJ. Effect of rapid diagnosis on management of influenza A infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19(4):303-307. (Retrospective study)
  24. Benito-Fernández J, Vázquez-Ronco MA, Morteruel- Aizkuren E, et al. Impact of rapid viral testing for influenza A and B viruses on management of febrile infants without signs of focal infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25(12):1153- 1157.
  25. Nicas M, Nazaroff WW, Hubbard A. Toward understanding the risk of secondary airborne infection: emission of respirable pathogens. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2(3):143-154. (Estimation model)
  26. Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, et al. Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7(4):257- 265. (A review)
  27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interim guidance on infection control measures for 2009 H1N1 influenza in healthcare settings, including protection of healthcare personnel. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/infectioncontrol/ healthcaresettings.htm Accessed October 8, 2010.
  28. Loeb M, Dafoe N, Mahony J, et al. Surgical mask vs N95 respirator for preventing influenza among healthcare workers: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2009;302(17):1865-1871. (Noninferiority, randomized, controlled trial; 446 patients)
  29. Traynor K. United States issues draft guidance for pandemic flu vaccination. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007;64(23):2412- 2414. (Report on policy)
  30. Hollmeyer HG, Hayden F, Poland G, et al. Influenza vaccination of healthcare workers in hospitals--a review of studies on attitudes and predictors. Vaccine. 2009;27(30):3935-3944. (Systematic review; 25 studies)
  31. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Policy statement--recommendations for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children, 2009-2010. Pediatrics. 2009;124(4):1216-1226.
  32. Smith N, Bresee J, Shay D, et al. Prevention and Control of Influenza. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006;55(RR10);1-42
  33. Autret-Leca E, Giraudeau B, Ployet MJ, et al. Amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid is ineffective at preventing otitis media in children with presumed viral upper respiratory infection: a randomized, double-blind equivalence, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;54(6):652-656. (Multicenter, equivalence, randomized, double-blind trial; 203 patients)
  34. De Marco G, Mangani S, Correra A, et al. Reduction of inappropriate hospital admissions of children with influenza-like illness through the implementation of specific guidelines: a case-controlled study. Pediatrics. 2005;116(4):e506-e511. (2-Phase comparative study)
  35. Bender JM, Ampofo K, Gesteland P, et al. Development and validation of a risk score for predicting hospitalization in children with influenza virus infection. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25(6):369-375. (Retrospective study; 1230 children)
  36. Lewis EN, Griffin MR, Szilagyi PG, et al. Childhood influenza: number needed to vaccinate to prevent 1 hospitalization or outpatient visit. Pediatrics. 2007;120(3):467-472. (Estimation study based on published disease rates)
  37. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Key facts about seasonal flu vaccine. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/keyfacts. htm Last accessed October 8, 2010.
  38. Negri E, Colombo C, Giordano L, et al. Influenza vaccine in healthy children: a meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2005;23:2851-2861.
  39. Pappano D, Humiston S, Goepp J. Efficacy of a pediatric emergency department-based influenza vaccination program. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(11):1077-1083. (Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial; 437 patients)
  40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: Mexico, March-April 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(17):467-470.
  41. World Health Organization. H1N1 in post-pandemic period: director-general’s opening statement at virtual press conference. August 10, 2010. World Health Organization Web site. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2010/ h1n1_vpc_20100810/en/index.html. Accessed October 8, 2010.
  42. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines for pharmacological management of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and other influenza viruses. http://www.who.int/csr/resources/ publications/swineflu/h1n1_use_antivirals_20090820/ en/index.html. Published February 2010. Accessed October 8, 2010.
  43. Dawood FS, Jain S, Finelli L, et al; Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Investigation Team. Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(25):2605-2615. (Multinational surveillance system)
  44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hospitalized patients with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: California, April-May, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(19):536-541.
  45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Neurologic complications associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children: Dallas, Texas, May 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(28):773-778.
  46. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for Pediatric Deaths Associated with 2009 Panel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection—United States—August 2009 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(34):941-947
  47. O’Riordan S, Barton M, Yau Y, et al. Risk factors and outcomes among children admitted to hospital with pandemic H1N1 influenza. CMAJ. 2010;182(1):39-44.
  48. Cruz AT, Patel B, DiStefano MC, et al. Outside the box and into thick air: implementation of an exterior mobile pediatric emergency response team for North American H1N1 (swine) influenza virus in Houston, Texas. Ann Emerg Med. 2010;55(1):23-31.
  49. Bennett B, Carney T, Saint C. Swine flu, doctors and pandemics: is there a duty to treat during a pandemic? J Law Med. 2010;17(5):736-747.
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