0

<< Postpartum Emergencies: Headache, Hypertension, Eclampsia, And Cardiomyopathy

References

TOC Will Appear Here

References

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and a number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.
  1. * Leitch CR, Cameron AD, Walker JJ. The changing pattern of eclampsia over a 60-year period. BJOG. 1997;104:917-922. (Retrospective series; 1259 patients)
  2. Walters BNJ, Thompson ME, Lee A, et al. Blood pressure in the puerperium. Clin Sci. 1986;71:589-594. (Prospective cohort; 136 patients)
  3. Walters BNJ, Walters T. Hypertension in the puerperium. Lancet. 1987;2:330. (Prospective cohort; 67 patients)
  4. Castro LC, Hobel CJ, Gornbein J. Plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal and hypertensive pregnancies: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;171:1642-1651. (Meta-analysis)
  5. * Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Working Program Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183:S1-S3. (Consensus report)
  6. Brown MA, Hague WM, Higgins J, et al. The detection, investigation and management of hypertension in pregnancy: executive summary. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;40(2):133-138. (Consensus report)
  7. ACOG Practice Bulletin: Diagnosis and management of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99(1):159-167. (Consensus report)
  8. Stone JH. HELLP Syndrome: Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets. JAMA. 1998;280:559-562. (Case report)
  9. Demakis J, Rahimtoola SH, Sutton GC, et al. Natural course of peripartum cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 1971;44:1053- 1061. (Prospective cohort; 27 patients)
  10. Pearson G, Veille JC, Rahimtoola S, et al. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Office of Rare Diseases (National Institutes of Health) workshop recommendations and review. JAMA. 2000;283(9):1183- 1188. (Consensus report)
  11. Department of Health, Welsh Office, Scottish Home and Health Department, and Department of Health and Social Security, Northern Ireland. Why mothers die. Report on confidential inquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 1994–96. Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO), London, 1999. (Retrospective review; 310 patients)
  12. * Ferrazzani S, DeCarolis S, Pomini F, et al. The duration of hypertension in the puerperium of preeclamptic women: relationship with renal impairment and week of delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;171:506-512. (Retrospective comparative series; 269 patients)
  13. Yancey LM, Withers E, Bakes K, Abbott J. Postpartum preeclampsia: emergency department presentation and management. J Emerg Med. 2008. In Press, Corrected Proof. Available online, 23 September 2008. (Retrospective series)
  14. Chames MC, Livingston JC, Ivester TS, et al. Late postpartum eclampsia: a preventable disease? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186:1174-1177. (Retrospective series; 24 patients)
  15. * Matthys LA, Coppage KH, Lambers DS, et al. Delayed postpartum preeclampsia: an experience of 151 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:1464-1466. (Retrospective series; 151 patients)
  16. Lubarsky SL, Barton JR, Friedman SA, et al. Late postpartum eclampsia revisited. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;83:502-505. (Retrospective series; 54 patients)
  17. Sibai B, Schneider J, Morrison J, et al. The late postpartum eclampsia controversy. Obstet Gynecol. 1980;55:74-78. (Review)
  18. * Douglas KA, Redman CWG. Eclampsia in the United Kingdom. BMJ. 1994;309:1395-1399. (Prospective cohort; 383 patients)
  19. Bond AL, August P, Druzin M, et al. Atrial natriuretic factor in normal and hypertensive pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;160:1112-1116. (Prospective cohort; 64 patients)
  20. Nagai K, Ikenoue T, Mori N. Atrial natriuretic peptide in transient puerperal hypertension. J Maternal-Fetal Med. 1997;6:329-333. (Prospective cohort; 15 patients)
  21. Makris A, Thornton C, Hennessy A. Postpartum hypertension and nonsteroidal analgesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190(2):577-578. (Case report)
  22. Sibai B, Dekker G, Kupferminc M. Pre-eclampsia. Lancet. 2005;365:785-799. (Systematic review)
  23. Roberts JM, Redman CW. Pre-eclampsia: More than pregnancy-induced hypertension. Lancet. 1993;341:1447-1451. (Review)
  24. Meekins JW, Pijnenborg R, Hanssens M, et al. A study of placental bed spiral arteries and trophoblast invasion in normal and severe pre-eclamptic pregnancies. BJOG. 1994;101:669- 674. (Case–control series; 10 patients)
  25. Ilekis JV, Reddy UM, Roberts JM. Preeclampsia — a pressing problem: an executive summary of a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop. Reprod Sci. 2007;14:508-523. (Consensus statement)
  26. Redman CW, Sacks GP, Sargent IL. Preeclampsia: an excessive maternal inflammatory response to pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180:499-506. (Systematic review)
  27. Roberts JM, Taylor RN, Goldfien A. Clinical and biochemical evidence of endothelial cell dysfunction in the pregnancy syndrome preeclampsia. Am J Hypertens. 1991;4:700-708. (Systematic review)
  28. Hinchey J, Chaves C, Appignani B, et al. A reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:494-500. (Case report)
  29. Zeeman G, Fleckenstein J, Twieckler D, et al. Cerebral infarction in eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:714-720. (Case report)
  30. Schwartz RB, Feske SK, Polak JF, et al. Preeclampsia–eclampsia: clinical and neuroradiologic correlates and insights into the pathogenesis of hypertensive encephalopathy. Radiology. 2000;217:371-376. (Retrospective series; 28 patients)
  31. Riskin-Mashiah S, Belfort MA. Preeclampsia is associated with global cerebral hemodynamic changes. J Soc Gynecol Invest. 2005;12:253-256. (Case–control; 34 patients)
  32. * Sibai BM, Ramadan MK, Usta I, et al. Maternal morbidity and mortality in 442 pregnancies with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP syndrome). Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;169:1000-1006. (Retrospective series; 437 patients)
  33. * Lampert MB, Lang RM. Peripartum cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J. 1995;130:860-870. (Systematic review)
  34. Sliwa K, Damasceno A, Mayosi BM. Epidemiology and etiology of cardiomyopathy in Africa. Circulation. 2005;112:3577- 3583. (Systematic review)
  35. Sanderson JE, Adesanya CO, Anjorin FI, et al. Postpartum cardiac failure — heart failure due to volume overload? Am Heart J. 1979;97:613-621. (Retrospective series; 43 patients)
  36. Sliwa K, Forster O, Libhaber E, et al. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: analysis of clinical outcome, left ventricular function, plasma levels of cytokines and Fas/APO-1. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:701-705. (Prospective cohort; 29 patients)
  37. O'Connell JB, Costanso-Nordin MR, Subramanian R, et al. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: clinical, hemodynamic, histologic and prognostic characteristics. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986;8:52-56. (Prospective cohort; 14 patients)
  38. Midei MG, DeMent SH, Feldman AM, et al. Peripartum myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 1990:81:922- 928. (Prospective cohort; 18 patients)
  39. Ansari AA, Fett JD, Carraway RE, et al. Autoimmune mechanisms as the basis for human peripartum cardiomyopathy. Clin Rev Allerg Immunol. 2003;23:301-324. (Systematic review)
  40. Pearl W. Familial occurrence of peripartum cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J. 1995;129:421-422. (Case report)
  41. Murali S, Baldisseri MR. Peripartum cardiomyopathy. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:S340-S346. (Systematic review)
  42. Elkayam U, Akhter MW, Singh H, et al. Pregnancy-associated cardiomyopathy: clinical characteristics and a comparison between early and late presentation. Circulation. 2005;111:2050-2055. (Retrospective series ; 123 patients)
  43. Seftel H, Susser M. Maternity and myocardial failure in African women. Br Heart J. 1961;23:43-52. (Historical review)
  44. Veile JC. Peripartum cardiomyopathies: a review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984;148:805-818. (Systematic review)
  45. Homans D. Peripartum cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 1985;312:1432-1437. (Review)
  46. Mendelson MA, Chandler J. Postpartum cardiomyopathy associated with maternal cocaine abuse. Am J Cardiol. 1992;70:1092-1093. (Case report)
  47. Lampert MB, Hibbard J, Weinert L, et al. Peripartum heart failure associated with prolonged tocolytic therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;168:493-495. (Case report)
  48. Cenac AS, Simonoff M, Moretto P, et al. A low plasma selenium is a risk factor for peripartum cardiomyopathy: a comparative study in Sahelian Africa. Int J Cardiol. 1992;36:57-59. (Case–control; 71 patients)
  49. * Stella CL, Jodicke CD, How HY, et al. Postpartum headache: is your work-up complete? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196:318-322. (Retrospective series; 95 patients)
  50. Winston AW, Norman D. Late postpartum eclampsia coincident with postdural puncture headache: a case report. AANA J. 2003;71:371-372. (Case report)
  51. Tanguay JJ, Allegretti PJ. Postpartum intracranial hemorrhage disguised as preeclampsia. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26(2):247.e5-247.e6. (Case report)
  52. Savage H, Harrison M. Central venous thrombosis misdiagnosed as eclampsia in an emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2008;25:49-50. (Case report)
  53. Kupferminc MJ, Eldor A, Steinman N, et al. Increased frequency of genetic thrombophilia in women with complications of pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 199;340:9. (Case control; 220 patients)
  54. Martinelli I, Sacchi E, Landi G, et al. High risk of cerebralvein thrombosis in carriers of a prothrombin-gene mutation in users of oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:1793- 1797. (Case–control; 240 patients)
  55. Silberstein SD, Marcelis J. Headache associated with changes in intracranial pressure. Headache 1992;32:84-94. (Systematic review)
  56. Sibai BM. Diagnosis, controversies, and management of the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:981-991. (Systematic review)
  57. Chu K, Kang DW, Yoon BW, et al. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance in cerebral venous thrombosis. Arch Neurol. 2001;58(10):1569-1576. (Prospective case series; 14 patients)
  58. Selim M, Fink J, Linfante I, et al. Diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis with echo-planar T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Neurol. 2002;59(6):1021-1026. (Retrospective series; 5 patients)
  59. * Sibai, BM. Diagnosis and management of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102:181-189. (Systematic review)
  60. Hayashi T. Uric acid and endogenous creatinine clearance studies in normal pregnancy and toxemias of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1956;71:859-870. (Historical review)
  61. Lamy C, Oppenheim C, Meder JF, et al. Neuroimaging in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. J Neuroimaging. 2004;14:89-96. (Systematic review)
  62. Raps EC, Galetta SL, Broderick M, et al. Delayed peripartum vasculopathy: cerebral eclampsia revisited. Ann Neurol. 1993;33:222-225. (Case series; 4 patients)
  63. Barton JR, Sibai BM. Hepatic imaging in HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count). Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;174:1820-1825. (Retrospective series; 34 patients)
  64. Davidson NM, Parry EH. The etiology of peripartum cardiac failure. Am Heart J. 1979;97:535-536. (Review)
  65. Schievink WI. Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leaks and intracranial hypotension. JAMA. 2006:295:2286-2296. (Systematic review)
  66. * LactMed database at http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov (Accessed June 13, 2010.)
  67. American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Subcommittee. Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients with asymptomatic hypertension in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;47:237-249. (Clinical policy)
  68. * Abalos E, Duley L, Steyn DW, et al. Antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Sys Rev. 2007(1);CD002252.
  69. * Magee L, Sadeghi S, von Dadelszen P. Prevention and treatment of postpartum hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005(1):CD004351.
  70. Sibai BM, Spinnato JA, Watson DL, et al. Eclampsia. IV. Neurological findings and future outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;152:184-192. (Longitudinal case series, 65 patients)
  71. Okanloma KA, Moodley J. Neurological complications associated with the pre-eclampsia/eclampsia syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000;71:223-225. (Case series)
  72. * Martin JN Jr, Thigpen BD, Moore RC, et al. Stroke and severe preeclampsia and eclampsia: a paradigm shift focusing on systolic blood pressure. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105:246-254. (Retrospective series; 28 patients)
  73. * Sibai BM. Magnesium sulfate prophylaxis in preeclampsia: evidence from randomized trials. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2005;48:478-488. (Systematic review)
  74. * Duley L, Gulmezoglu AM, Henderson-Smart DJ. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003(2):CD000025. (Systematic review)
  75. Duley L, Henderson-Smart DJ. Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000(1):CD000127. (Systematic review)
  76. Duley L, Henderson-Smart D. Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1995(2):CD000128. (Systematic review)
  77. Matsuo K. Late postpartum eclampsia: report of two cases managed by uterine curettage and review of the literature. Am J Perinatol. 2007;24:257-266. (Case report)
  78. Stricker RB, Main EK, Kronfield J, et al. Severe post-partum eclampsia: response to plasma exchange. J Clin Apheresis. 1992;7:1-3. (Case report)
  79. Ringer AJ, Quereshi AI, Kim SH, et al. Angioplasty for cerebral vasospasm from eclampsia. Surg Neurol. 2001;56:373- 378. (Case report)
  80. Fonseca JE, Mendez F, Catano C, Arias F. Dexamethasone treatment does not improve the outcome of women with HELLP syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193:1591- 1598. (Randomized, controlled, double-blind trial)
  81. * Katz L, de Amorim MM, Figueiroa JN, et al. Postpartum dexamethasone for women with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome: a doubleblind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:283,e1-8. (Randomized, controlled, double-blind trial)
  82. Rinehart BK, Terrone DA, Magann EF, et al. Preeclampsiaassociated hepatic hemorrhage and rupture: mode of management related to maternal and perinatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol Surg. 1999;54:196-202. (Systematic review)
  83. * Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. National Institutes of Health, Washington, DC, Revised 2000. (NIH Publication No. 00-3029, out of print) (Consensus statement)
  84. * Hale TW. Medications and Mothers' Milk. 9th ed. Amarillo, Texas: Pharmasoft Publishing; 2000. (Textbook)
Get A Sample Issue Of Emergency Medicine Practice
Enter your email to get your copy today! Plus receive updates on EB Medicine every month.
Please provide a valid email address.