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Anemia In The Hospitalized Patient: Current Evidence-Based Strategies For Evaluation And Treatment

May 2014

Abstract

Anemia is a prevalent condition in the acutely ill and hospitalized patient. Its severity can vary from mild comorbidity to life-threatening, and many studies show that its presence has been associated with poorer outcomes and increased mortality. Nevertheless, the indications and threshold for transfusion in anemia have become stricter, as the simple correction of hemoglobin is not always associated with better outcomes and can lead to increased mortality. This review examines the current literature on the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of anemia in the hospitalized patient, including the indications and potential outcomes of blood transfusions, parenteral and enteral iron supplementation, and the indications and cautions for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.

Key words: microcytic anemia, macrocytic anemia, normocytic anemia, restrictive transfusion, liberal transfusion, iron supplementation, parenteral iron, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, iron dextran

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