Albassam OT, Redelmeier RJ, Shadowitz S, et al. Did this patient have cardiac syncope? The rational clinical examination systematic review. JAMA. 2019;321(24):2448-2457.
This systematic review of 11 studies sought to assess the accuracy and efficacy of the clinical examination in determining which adult patients have cardiac syncope versus syncope from other causes. Multiple historical, physical, and diagnostic factors were assessed, and the authors concluded that the clinical examination with electrocardiography (ECG) utilized in clinical assessment scores can identify and differentiate cardiac syncope.