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Bontempo LJ, Manning SL. Tracheostomy emergencies. Emerg Med Clin N Am. 2019;37(1):109-119.
Tracheostomies are placed for reasons such as long-term mechanical ventilation, a patient’s inability to protect the airway, or upper airway obstruction from a mass or laryngeal resection. While tracheostomies offer significant benefits in patient mobility, oxygenation/ventilation, and comfort, complications from the procedure can occur. This article reviews management of both emergent complications (decannulation, obstruction, hemorrhage) and urgent complications (tracheoesophageal fistula, tracheal stenosis, infection, cutaneous fistula formation) of tracheostomies.