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Brain Teaser: Do you know which of the following patients meets the criteria for anaphylaxis? June 24, 2019

Posted by Andy Jagoda, MD in : Brain Tease , add a comment

Test your knowledge and see how much you know about recognition and treatment of anaphylaxis in pediatric patients.

Did you get it right? Click here to find out!

The correct answer: A.

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Clinical Pathway for Diagnosis of Anaphylaxis in Pediatric Patients June 7, 2019

Posted by Andy Jagoda, MD in : Feature Update , 1 comment so far

Anaphylaxis is a time-sensitive, clinical diagnosis that is often misdiagnosed because the presenting signs and symptoms are similar to those of other disease processes. An allergic reaction is an overreaction of the immune system to a foreign substance (allergen). Anaphylaxis is a type of an allergic reaction that is an
acute, severe systemic hypersensitivity reaction that can rapidly lead to death.

The signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis are similar to other common illnesses, which can make diagnosis challenging. Atypical anaphylaxis can be even more difficult to diagnose, because some of the typical signs of anaphylaxis are not present.

This clinical pathway will help you diagnose pediatric patient with anaphylaxis. Download now.

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A 3-year-old girl with a known peanut allergy May 31, 2019

Posted by Andy Jagoda, MD in : What's Your Diagnosis , add a comment

Case Recap:
A 3-year-old girl with a known peanut allergy arrives to your ED via EMS. The girl was given a cookie by a classmate and immediately developed a generalized urticarial rash. EMS personnel gave her 12.5 mg of oral diphenhydramine and transported her to the ED. On examination, the patient has a heart rate of 160 beats/min with normal oxygenation and perfusion. She has bilateral periorbital swelling, without respiratory distress, wheezing, vomiting, or diarrhea. The accompanying daycare teacher tells you that the girl has previously been admitted to the intensive care unit for anaphylaxis.

You call the girl’s parents for more information and wonder what to do in the meantime. Is diphenhydramine sufficient treatment for this patient? Are corticosteroids indicated? Is this just an allergic reaction or could it be an anaphylactic reaction? What are the criteria for diagnosis of anaphylaxis? What are the indications for administering epinephrine in patients with anaphylaxis?

Case Conclusion:
The parents of the 3-year-old girl stated that the girl’s previous anaphylactic reaction began with urticaria and facial swelling that progressed, resulting in a critical care admission for airway compromise due to angioedema. You administered epinephrine 0.01 mg/kg IM for suspected anaphylaxis and observed the patient in the ED for 4 hours. The girl had complete resolution of the facial swelling and urticarial rash. You reviewed the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis with the parents, discussed allergen avoidance, and demonstrated appropriate use of an epinephrine autoinjector. You discharged the patient with a prescription for 2 epinephrine autoinjectors and an anaphylaxis action plan.

Did you get it right?

Brush up on most recent best practices in evaluating and treating pediatric patients with anaphylaxis in the ED with the latest issue of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice issue, Anaphylaxis in Pediatric Patients: Early Recognition and Treatment Are Critical for Best Outcomes.

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It is Stroke Awareness Month! May 16, 2019

Posted by Andy Jagoda, MD in : Feature Update , add a comment

10 Risk Management Pitfalls For Cervical Artery Dissections

Cervical artery dissections involve the carotid or vertebral arteries. Although the overall incidence is low, they remain a common cause of stroke in children, young adults, and trauma patients. Symptoms such as headache, neck pain, and dizziness are commonly seen in the emergency department, but may not be apparent in the obtunded trauma patient. A missed diagnosis of cervical artery dissection can result in devastating neurological sequelae, so emergency clinicians must act quickly to recognize this event and begin treatment as soon as possible while neurological consultation is obtained.

Use these risk management pitfalls to avoid unwanted outcomes when performing cervical artery dissections. Download now.

1. “This patient has a left temporal headache that radiates into his left ear. His examination is benign, except his pupil is smaller on that side. I did a noncontrast CT head and it’s negative. The headache is probably just due to a hard game of basketball yesterday. I’m going to give him some IV ketorolac and send him out.”

Dissections can occur spontaneously or as a result of minor trauma, even from a basketball game. Failure to consider the diagnosis will result in a missed diagnosis. Headaches in carotid artery dissections can be nonspecific, but are mostly located in the frontal or temporal regions; the radiation to the ear is also characteristic. His examination is also concerning for a partial Horner syndrome. Both of those are suspicious for carotid artery dissection and warrant further vascular imaging.

2. “She has a history of migraines, and she says that this one is different from what she usually feels, but it definitely sounds like a migraine because it is unilateral, pulsatile, and she had a visual aura. I’m going to give her the usual migraine cocktail and see how she does.”

Not suspecting cervical arterial dissection in the beginning of the evaluation results in a significant delay to diagnosis. It can be many hours by the time she has a couple of migraine cocktails before you realize her headache isn’t better and you need to rethink your plan. Due to the risk of early stroke in these patients, a delay in diagnosis could lead to long-term neurological sequelae. Headaches in carotid dissections can be unilateral, pulsatile, and with an aura. Any time a patient with a history of migraines states that the symptoms are not typical, take note.

3. “A 35-year-old woman was attacked by her boyfriend. He hit her on the right side of the neck near her jaw, causing her head to snap around to the left. Her neurological examination is completely normal. She is in a great deal of pain, but it seems to be related to the soft-tissue injury from the hit, because her noncontrast CT head and c-spine are negative. I’m going to treat her pain and see how she feels.”

Pain due to the trauma could mask specific signs or symptoms of dissection. In these patients, relying on the history to identify high-risk factors is important. Due to the location of the blow, it may have caused a hyperextension and rotation of her head in addition to direct trauma, which could have caused a dissection. Patients with risk factors should have advanced vascular imaging (CTA or MRA).

4. “I couldn’t do a neurological examination because she was in too much pain. I’ll treat her headache and then try again later.”

Although it seems kind to give patients a little time to obtain comfort before performing an examination, a prompt neurological examination is absolutely necessary in order to determine any findings that need to be addressed immediately, such as an acute stroke.

5. “A 12-year-old boy fell off of his bike after running into a parked car, and then he had a seizure. The noncontrast CT head and c-spine were normal. He is still in some pain, but I don’t see anything abnormal on his neuro examination, so I’m going to clear his c-spine.”

Pediatric patients with dissection have different symptoms from adults; seizure has been shown to be a presenting symptom in 12.5% of cases. The seizure, along with the mechanism, should prompt vascular imaging to assess for a cervical artery dissection before the cervical collar is removed.

6. “I really thought that patient with the headache, anterolateral neck pain, and partial Horner syndrome had a carotid dissection, but the CTA was read as negative, so I guess I was wrong. I’ll just treat her pain and send her home.”

CTA is an excellent screening tool, but it is not 100% sensitive and can miss small intimal flaps, intramural hematomas, or a slight fusiform dilatation of the vessel. In patients for whom there is a high suspicion of dissection and a negative or equivocal CTA or MRA, further imaging with MRI or digital subtraction angiography is indicated.

7. “The CTA showed a dissection, so I gave him an aspirin and called neurology. However, he now says he doesn’t want to wait and wants to go home. His neuro examination is normal, so I was thinking of sending him out on aspirin.”

Sending the patient home in the acute setting without consultation is not a good idea. Due to high risk of stroke in the first 24 hours and the high incidence of progression of lower-grade dissections, these patients warrant close monitoring and early follow-up imaging to determine the need for escalation of care.

8. “The intubated trauma patient had his noncontrast CT head and c-spine and the radiologist just called and said there is a temporal bone fracture through the carotid canal. I’m going to pass it along and let the trauma service finish the workup after he gets to the intensive care unit.”

This will lead to a significant delay in diagnosis, which could be devastating for the patient. Due to its sensitivity and availability in the ED, a CTA should be performed prior to the patient being transported upstairs, so treatment can be started immediately.

9. “The CTA showed a vertebral artery dissection on that patient from the roller coaster ride, so I consulted the neurology service for admission. Her neuro examination is normal, so I’m going to wait to treat her and see what they recommend.”

An antithrombotic agent for stroke prevention needs to be started on this patient and can be started in the ED to avoid treatment delays. Studies in this population have not shown superiority of one over the other, so the choice of aspirin or heparin depends on patient factors. For uncomplicated dissections, antiplatelet agents are sufficient, and heparin is preferred in patients with an acute thrombus or high risk for thromboembolic events if no contraindications exist.

10. “The patient is a 42-year-old man presenting with an acute onset of right-sided hemiplegia and global aphasia that started 1 hour ago while at the grocery store. His CT head was negative for hemorrhage, but the CTA showed a dissection in his left carotid artery with about 50% vessel occlusion. Unfortunately, that excludes him from treatment with rtPA due to the risk of hemorrhage or intramural hematoma expansion.”

Data have shown rtPA to be as safe in patients with cervical dissections as with patients with strokes due to other causes. Therefore, this patient should be treated with rtPA as soon as possible if there are no contraindications. Endovascular treatment should also be considered if there are contraindications to IV rtPA or if he does not improve after treatment.

Need more information or Stroke CME?
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It is Trauma Awareness Month! Can you solve the trauma case below? May 10, 2019

Posted by Andy Jagoda, MD in : What's Your Diagnosis , add a comment

Do you need to do anything regarding the missing fragment? — ED Management of Dental Trauma in Pediatric Patients

Case Recap:
You are then asked to see a 15-year-old adolescent boy who has come in with a tooth avulsion. He was at basketball practice when another player accidentally elbowed him in the mouth. He did not lose consciousness and has pain only in his mouth. He was immediately brought to your ED, which is about 15 minutes away from where the accident happened. His coach arrives with the boy’s tooth in a container of milk. On physical examination, the patient has lost his right lateral incisor and a clot remains where his tooth had been. How much time do you have to replace the tooth to have the best success of replantation? What do you need to consider while handling, storing, and cleaning the tooth?

Case Conclusion:
For the 15-year-old boy, you decided to replace the tooth as soon as possible. The patient had no other medical problems. You used Yankauer suction and light irrigation to remove the clot from the socket. You held the tooth by the crown, briefly rinsed it off, and used firm, gentle pressure to reinsert the tooth without any difficulty. You had Coe PakTM paste available at your facility, and you created a temporary splint to secure the tooth. You instructed the mother to follow up with the dentist tomorrow and to provide only a soft diet until then. You told the coach and the boy’s mom that, in the future, they should attempt to reimplant the tooth at the time of the accident and instructed them on the steps involved.

Did you get it right?

Click here to review the issue, Emergency Department Management of Dental Trauma: Recommendations for Improved Outcomes in Pediatric Patients (Trauma CME and Pharmacology CME).

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A 2-year-old girl with upper respiratory infection symptoms — Brain Teaser. Do you know the answer? April 18, 2019

Posted by Andy Jagoda, MD in : Brain Tease , 1 comment so far

Test your knowledge and see how much you know about diagnosing and managing pediatric community-acquired pneumonia.

Did you get it right? Click here to find out!

The correct answer: B.

Earn CME for this topic by purchasing this issue.

Clinical Pathway for Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the Emergency Department April 15, 2019

Posted by Andy Jagoda, MD in : Feature Update , add a comment

Sexually transmitted disease can cause severe outcomes for patients, their partners, and their unborn babies, and swift and accurate diagnosis and treatment is essential to reduce morbidity and minimize the potential public health risks.

Sexually transmitted diseases are a growing threat to public health, but are often underrecognized, due to the often nonspecific (or absent) signs and symptoms, the myriad diseases, and the possibility of co-infection. Emergency clinicians play a critical role in improving healthcare outcomes for both patients and their partners. Optimizing the history and physical examination, ordering appropriate testing, and prescribing antimicrobial therapies, when required, will improve outcomes for men, women, and pregnant women and their babies.

This clinical pathway will help you improve care in the management of patients with sexually transmitted diseases. Download now.

Clinical Pathway for Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the Emergency Department

Clinical Pathway for Management of Pediatric Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia April 15, 2019

Posted by Andy Jagoda, MD in : Feature Update , add a comment

A significant challenge in the management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia is identifying children who are more likely to have bacterial pneumonia and will benefit from antibiotic therapy while avoiding unnecessary testing and treatment in children who have viral pneumonia.

Worldwide, pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children aged < 5 years. Distinguishing viral from bacterial causes of pneumonia is paramount to providing effective treatment but remains a significant challenge. For patients who can be managed with outpatient treatment, the utility of laboratory tests and radiographic studies, as well as the need for empiric antibiotics, remains questionable.

Clinical Pathway for Management of Pediatric Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

This clinical pathway will help you improve care in the management of pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Click here to download yours today.

Do you need to do anything regarding the missing fragment? — ED Management of Dental Trauma in Pediatric Patients April 11, 2019

Posted by Andy Jagoda, MD in : What's Your Diagnosis , add a comment

Case Recap:
Your first patient of the day is a 2-year-old girl who tripped and fell while walking, hitting her mouth on the concrete sidewalk. On your examination, her left central incisor tooth appears to be fractured, with a yellow dot visible inside the tooth. The tooth is nontender and nonmobile. The parents don’t have the other part of the tooth and think it fell onto the street. You start to consider: How do you determine what kind of fracture this is and how serious it is? How does management differ between primary teeth versus permanent teeth, and how can you tell if this is a primary tooth or a permanent tooth? Do you need to do anything regarding the missing fragment?

Case Conclusion:
After seeing the 2-year-old girl with the chipped tooth, you realized that, given her age, this was likely primary dentition, which you confirmed with the parents. You could also tell on examination that the upper right central incisor was more of a milky-white color with a smooth edge, which is also consistent with primary dentition. You decided that the management priorities were to prevent further harm to the developing permanent dentition and to confirm that the tooth fragment was truly lost. You were unable to detect any retained foreign bodies on your physical examination, but you decided to obtain radiographic images to confirm. On facial radiography, there appeared to be a small foreign body inside her right upper lip. You repeated your physical examination and were able to extract the small tooth fragment. The girl’s left central incisor appeared to be an uncomplicated crown fracture. The girl was able to drink without difficulty. You did not have dental panoramic radiography available at your institution, so you instructed the parents to follow up with the girl’s dentist for assessment of her permanent dentition. You recommended a soft diet and to clean the tooth with chlorhexidine until the patient was able to see the dentist.

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Should you give antivenom again? — ED Management of North American Snake Envenomations April 11, 2019

Posted by Andy Jagoda, MD in : What's Your Diagnosis , 2comments

Case Recap:
A 26-year-old man arrives to the ED via private vehicle with his arm in a makeshift sling. He reports that his pet rattlesnake bit him on his right index finger about 45 minutes ago. His hand and wrist are swollen. He reports that he has no past medical history besides his 3 previous visits for snakebites. He reports having a “reaction” to the snakebite antidote during his last visit. You wonder whether the patient is immune . . . or should you give antivenom again?

Case Conclusion:
The 26-year-old man with 3 prior rattlesnake bites was at risk for significant morbidity related to this fourth snakebite, including impaired use of his dominant hand. Additionally, his initial lab values showed a developing coagulopathy. You decided to administer 6 vials of antivenom, but you ordered pretreatment with IV corticosteroids and antihistamines. You moved the patient to your resuscitation area for administration of antivenom and admitted him to the ICU for continued monitoring; fortunately, there were no side effects with the initial dose of antivenom.

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