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<< HIV-Related Illnesses: The Challenge Of ED Management


Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study, such as the type of study and the number of patients in the study, will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in the paper, as determined by the authors, will be noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.
  1. * Kelen GD, Johnson G, Di Giorena TA, et al. Profile of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting to an inner-city emergency department: preliminary report. Ann Emerg Med 1990;19:963-969. (Retrospective; 254 emergency visitsby 164 patients)
  2. Zhu T, Korber BT, Nahmias AJ, et al. An African HIV- 1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic. [see comments]. Nature 1998 Feb 5;391(6667):594-597. (Historical article)
  3. Manier J. Scientists push HIV’s origin back to ’30s. Chicago Tribune January 31, 2000. (Historical article)
  4. Cribb J. The origin of acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Can science afford to ignore it?  hilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London—Series B: Biological Sciences. 2001 Jun 29;356(1410):935-938. (Review; 20 references) 
  5. Clayton AJ. Possible origins, transmission patterns, and future course of AIDS. J Travel Med 1996;3(4):231- 234. (Editorial) 
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV and AIDS—United States, 1981-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001;50:430-434. (Report) 
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC guidelines for national human immunodeficiency virus case surveillance, including monitoring for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48:1-31. (Report) 
  8. Bowers DH. HIV: Past, present, and future. Postgrad Med 2000;107:109-113.
  9. Janssen RS, St Louis ME, Satten GA, et al. HIV infection among patients in U.S. acute care hospitals. Strategies for the counseling and testing of the hospital patients. The Hospital HIV Surveillance Group. N Engl J Med 1992 Aug 13;327(7):445-452. (Retrospective; 9286 of 195,829 specimens (4.7%) were positive for HIV-1 in 20 hospitals) 
  10. Quinn TC. The epidemiology of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the 1990s. Emerg Med  lin North Am 1995;13:1-25. (Review)
  11. Kelen GD, Hexter DA, Hansen KN, et al. Trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among a patient population of an inner-city emergency department: implications for emergency department-based screening programs for HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis 1995 Oct;21(4):867-875. (Mass screening; 183 of 1606 patients [11.4%] were HIV-positive) 
  12. D’Souza MP, Cairns JS, Plaeger SF. Current evidence and future directions for targeting HIV entry: theraputic and prophylactic strategies. JAMA 2000; 284:215-222. (Review) 
  13. Fox R, Eldred LJ, Fuchs EJ, et al. Clinical manifestations of acute infection with human immunodeficiency virus in a cohort of gay men. AIDS 1987 May;1(1):35-38. (Retrospective; 22 patients) 
  14. Tokars JI, Marcus R, Culver DH, et al. Surveillance of HIV infection with and zidovudine use among health care workers after occupational exposure to HIVinfected blood. Ann Intern Med 1993:118:913-919.(Prospective; exposed workers voluntarily reported by 312 U.S. health care facilities, 4 of 1103 enrolled workers with percutaneous exposure to HIV infected  blood seroconverted) 
  15. McCune JM. The dynamics of CD4+ T-cell depletion in HIV disease. Nature 2001;410:974-979. (Review) 
  16. Bacchetti P, Osmond D, Chaisson RE, et al. Survival patterns of the first 500 patients with AIDS in San Francisco. J Infect Dis 1988;157: 1044-1047. (Comparative) 
  17. Rothenberg R, Woelfel M, Stoneburner R, et al. Survival with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Experience with 5833 cases in New York City. N Engl J Med 1987;317:1297-1302. (Cohort; 5833 subjects) 
  18. * Hirschtick RE, Glassroth J, Jordan MC, et al. Bacterial pneumonia in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. N Engl J Med 1995 Sep 28;333(13):845-851. (Prosepctive, case-control; 1130 HIV-positive and 167 HIV-negative adults)
  19. Furrer H, Egger M, Opravil M, et al. Discontinuation of primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV-1-infected adults treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. N Engl J Med 1999 Apr 29;340(17):1301-1306. (Prospective; 262 patients)
  20.  Jeffe DB, Khan SR, Meredith KL, et al. Disclosure of HIV status to medical providers: differences by gender, “race,” and immune function. Public Health Rep 2000 Jan-Feb;115(1):38-45. (Multivariate analysis; 179 patients) 
  21. Schoenbaum EE, Webber MP. The underrecognition of HIV infection in women in an inner-city emergency room. Am J Public Health 1993 Mar;83(3):363-368. (Cross-sectional; 2102 patients) 
  22. el-Sadr W, Gettler J. Unrecognized human immunodeficiency virus infection in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1995 Jan 23;155(2):184-186. (Retrospective; 257 serum samples) 
  23. Craven DE, Steger KA, La Chapelle R, et al. Factitious HIV infection: the importance of  ocumenting infection. Ann Intern Med 1994 Nov 15;121(10):763- 766. (Retrospective chart review; 7 patients)
  24. Floyd M, Lang F, Beine KL, et al. Evaluating interviewing techniques for the sexual practices history. Use of video trigger tapes to assess patient comfort. Arch Fam Med 1999 May-Jun;8(3):218-223. (Feasibility study) 
  25. Kline MW, Hollinger FB, Rosenblatt HM, et al. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of physical examination, culture and other laboratory studies in the diagnosis during early infancy of vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993 Jan;12(1):33-36. (Retrospective; 142 infants) 
  26. Polsky B, Kotler D, Steinhart C. HIV-associated wasting in the HAART era: guidelines for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2001 Aug;15(8):411-423. (Review; 100  eferences)
  27. Shiboski CH, Hilton JF, Greenspan D, et al. HIVrelated oral manifestations in two cohorts of women in San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994 Sep;7(9):964-971. (Prospective, cohort; 176 HIVinfected women, 117 HIV-negative women) 
  28. Feigal DW, Katz MH, Greenspan D, et al. The prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-infected homosexual and bisexual men: three San Francisco epidemiological cohorts. AIDS 1991 May;5(5):519-525. (Cohort) 
  29. Nelson RS, Rickman LS, Mathews WC, et al. Rapid clinical diagnosis of pulmonary abnormalities in  IVseropositive patients by auscultatory percussion. Chest 1994 Feb;105(2):402-407. (Prospective, blinded;63 patients)
  30. Kinloch-De Loes S, Hirschel BJ, Hoen B, et al. A controlled trial of zidovudine in primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1995 Aug 17;333(7):408-413. (Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled; 77 patients) 
  31. Kinloch-de Loes S, Perneger TV. Primary HIV infection: follow-up of patients initially randomized to zidovudine or placebo. J Infect 1997 Sep;35(2):111- 116. (Randomized, controlled trial; 77 patients) 
  32. Schacker TW, Hughes JP, Shea T, et al. Biological and virologic characteristics of primary HIV  nfection. Ann Intern Med 1998 Apr 15;128(8):613-620. (Prospective, cohort; 74 adults)
  33. Busch MP, Lee LL, Satten GA, et al. Time course of detection of viral and serologic markers preceding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion: implications for screening of blood and tissue donors. Transfusion 1995 Feb;35(2):91-97. (Cohort; 81 men) 
  34. * Armstrong WS, Katz JT, Kazanjian PH. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated fever of unknown origin: a study of 70 patients in the United States and review. Clin Infect Dis 1999 Feb;28(2):341-345. (Retrospective; 70 patients) 
  35. * Sepkowitz KA, Telzak EE, Carrow M, et al. Fever among outpatients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Intern Med 1993 Aug 23;153(16):1909-1912. (Prospective; 176 patients) 
  36. Sewell DD, Jeste DV. Distinguishing neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) from NMS-like acute medical illnesses: a study of 34 cases. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1992 Summer;4(3):265-269. (34 patients) 
  37. Zurlo JJ, Feuerstein IM, Lebovics R, et al. Sinusitis in HIV-1 infection. Am J Med 1992 Aug;93(2):157-162. (Retrospective; 145 patients)
  38. Churchill MA Jr, Geraci JE, Hunder GG. Musculoskeletal manifestations of bacterial endocarditis. Ann Intern Med 1977 Dec;87(6):754-759. (Retrospective;92 cases) 
  39. Gallagher EJ, Trotzky SW. Sustained effect of an intervention to limit ordering of emergency department lumbosacral spine films. J Emerg Med 1998 May- Jun;16(3):395-401. (Cross-sectional, observational; 520 patients) 
  40. Hossain A, Reis ED,  Soundararajan K, et al. Nontropical pyomyositis: analysis of eight patients in an urban center. Am Surg 2000 Nov;66(11):1064-1066. (Retrospective; 8 patients)
  41. Youmans S, Doyle CA, Tomaszewski C. Predictors of positive blood cultures in adult HIV patients presenting to the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 1995;2:389. (Retrospective study of 502 ED visits of HIV-positive patients with blood cultures drawn.) 
  42. Cohen AJ, Steigbigel RT. Eosinophilia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis 1996 Sep;174(3):615-618. (855 patients) 
  43. Hermans P, Sommereijns B, Van Cutsem N, et al. Neutropenia in patients with HIV infection: a case control study in a cohort of 1403 patients between 1982 and 1993. J Hematother Stem Cell Res 1999;8 Suppl 1:S23-S32. (Case control; 1403 patients)
  44. Pseudomonas spp. complications in patients with HIV disease: an eight-year clinical and microbiological survey. Eur J Epidemiol 2000;16(2):111-118.
  45. * Blatt SP, Lucey CR, Butzin CA, et al. Total lymphocyte count as a predictor of absolute CD4+ count and CD4+ percentage in HIV-infected persons. JAMA 1993 Feb 3;269(5):622-626. (Retrospective; 828 patients) 
  46. Fournier AM, Sosenko JM. The relationship of total lymphocyte count to CD4 lymphocyte counts in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Med Sci 1993;304:79-92. (Retrospective; 65 patients)
  47. * Shapiro NI, Karras DJ, Leech SH, et al. Absolute lymphocyte count as a predictor of CD4 count. Ann Emerg Med 1998 Sep;32(3 Pt 1):323-328. (Retrospective data analysis; 807 samples)
  48. * von Gottberg A, Sacks L, Machala S, et al. Utility of blood cultures and incidence of mycobacteremia in patients with suspected tuberculosis in a South African infectious disease referral hospital. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2001 Jan;5(1):80-86. (71 patients) 
  49. Lichenstein R, King JC Jr, Farley JJ, et al. Bacteremia in febrile human immunodeficiency virus-infected children presenting to ambulatory care settings. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998 May;17(5):381-385. (Cohort; 42 children) 
  50. Hoepelman AI, van Buren M, van den Broek J, et al. Bacteriuria in men infected with HIV-1 is related to their immune status (CD4+ cell count). AIDS 1992 Feb;6(2):179-184. (Prospective; 133 patients)
  51. De Pinho AM, Lopes GS, Ramos-Filho CF, et al. Urinary tract infection in men with AIDS. Genitourin Med 1994 Feb;70(1):30-34. (Crosssectional; 415 patients)
  52. * Behrman AJ, Shofer FS. Tuberculosis exposure and control in an urban emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1998 Mar;31(3):370-375. (Prospective, interventional, cohort; 5697 hospital employees)
  53. Balestra DJ, Hennigan SH, Ross GS. Clinical prediction of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Arch Intern Med 1992 Mar;152(3):623-624. 
  54. Luft BJ, Hafner R, Korzun AH, et al. Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Members of the ACTG 077p/ ANRS 009 Study Team. N Engl J Med 1993 Sep 30;329(14):995-1000. (Prospective; 49 patients) 
  55. Chuck SL, Sande MA. Infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1989 Sep 21;321(12):794-799. (Comparative; 106 patients) 
  56. Rivera Del Rio JR, Flores R, Melendez J, et al. Profile of HIV patients with and without bacterial endocarditis. Cell Mol Biol 1997 Nov;43(7):1153-1160. (Comparative; 1500 patients) 
  57. Hecht SR, Berger M. Right-sided endocarditis in intravenous drug users. Prognostic features in 102 episodes. Ann Intern Med 1992 Oct 1;117(7):560-566. (Retrospective; 102 episodes)
  58. * Sepkowitz KA. Effect of prophylaxis on the clinical manifestations of AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Clin Infect Dis 1998 Apr;26(4):806-810. (Review)
  59. Burack JH, Hahn JA, Saint-Maurice D, et al. Microbiology of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in persons with and at risk for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Implications for rational empiric antibiotic therapy. Arch Intern Med 1994 Nov 28;154(22):2589-2596. (Retrospective, cohort; 216 patients)
  60. Walker PA, White DA. Pulmonary disease. Med Clin North Am 1996 Nov;80(6):1337-1362. (Review)
  61. * Sokolove PE, Rossman L, Cohen SH. The emergency department presentation of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Acad Emerg Med 2000 Sep;7(9):1056-1060. (Retrospective; 44 patients)
  62. Moran GJ, McCabe F, Morgan MT, et al. Delayed recognition and infection control for tuberculosis patients in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1995 Sep;26(3):290-295. (Retrospective; 55 patients)
  63. Beck-Sague C, Dooley SW, Hutton MD, et al. Hospital outbreak of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Factors in transmission to staff and HIV-infected patients. JAMA 1992 Sep 9;268(10):1280-1286. (Case control)
  64. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nosocomial transmission of multidrug resistant tuberculosis among HIV-infected persons—Florida and New York. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1991;40: 585-591. (Report)
  65. Bozzette SA, Finkelstein DM, Spector SA, et al. A randomized trial of three antipneumocystis agents in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med 1995 Mar 16;332(11):693-699. (Randomized, controlled trial; 843 patients)
  66. Small PM, Fujiwara PI. Management of tuberculosis in the United States. N Engl J Med 2001 Jul 19;345(3):189-200. (Review)
  67. Ho JL. Co-infection with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: immunologic interactions, disease progression, and survival. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1996 May-Jun;91(3):385-387. 
  68. Sepkowitz KA, Raffalli J, Riley L, et al. Tuberculosis in the AIDS era. Clin Microbiol Rev 1995 Apr;8(2):180- 199. (Review) 
  69. * Telzak EE. Tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Med Clin North Am 1997 Mar;81(2):345-360. (Review) 
  70. Brandli O. The clinical presentation of tuberculosis. Respiration 1998;65(2):97-105. (Review)
  71.  Jasmer RM, Edinburgh KJ, Thompson A, et al. Clinical and radiographic predictors of the etiology of pulmonary nodules in HIV-infected patients. Chest 2000 Apr;117(4):1023-1030. (Retrospective, comparative; 242 patients) 
  72. Crans CA Jr, Boiselle PM. Imaging features of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Crit Rev Diag Imaging 1999;40(4):251-284. (Review; 66 references) 
  73. Santamauro JT, Stover DE. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Med Clin North Am 1997 Mar;81(2):299- 318. (Review) 
  74. Jules-Elysee KM, Stover DE, Zaman MB, et al. Aerosolized pentamidine: effect on diagnosis and presentation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Ann Intern Med 1990 May 15;112(10):750-757. (Retrospective; 52 patients) 
  75. Hopewell PC. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: diagnosis. J Infect Dis 1988 Jun;157(6): 1115-1119. (Review) 
  76. Magnenat JL, Nicod LP, Auckenthaler R, et al. Mode of presentation and diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991 Oct;144(4):917-922. (Comparative; 132 episodes)
  77. * Havlir DV, Barnes PF. Tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1999 Feb 4;340(5):367-373. (Review) 
  78. * Smith DE, Forbes A, Davies S, et al. Diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV antibody positive patients by simple outpatient assessments. Thorax 1992 Dec;47(12):1005-1009. (Prospective; 318 patients) 
  79. * Sauleda J, Gea J, Aran X, et al. Simplified exercise test for the initial differential diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV antibody positive patients. Thorax 1994 Feb;49(2):112-114. (Comparative; 45 patients) 
  80. Quist J, Hill AR. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bacterial pneumonia. Chest 1995 Aug;108(2):415-418. (Comparative; 42 hospitalized patients with PCP, 71 with disseminated TB, 40 with pulmonary TB, and 37 with bacterial pneumonia)
  81. Katz MH, Baron RB, Grady D. Risk stratification of ambulatory patients suspected of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Arch Intern Med 1991 Jan;151(1):105-110. (Prospective; 302 patients) 
  82. * Grover SA, Coupal L, Suissa S, et al. The clinical utility of serum lactate dehydrogenase in diagnosing pneumocystis carinii pneumonia among hospitalized AIDS patients. Clin Invest Med 1992 Aug;15(4):309- 317. (76 patients)
  83. Zaman MK, White DA. Serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Diagnostic and prognostic significance. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988 Apr;137(4):796-800. (84 patients) 
  84. Fernandez P, Torres A, Miro JM, et al. Prognostic factors influencing the outcome in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. Thorax 1995 Jun;50(6):668-671. (Prospective; 102 patients)
  85. Kales CP, Murren JR, Torres RA, et al. Early  redictors of in-hospital mortality for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Intern Med 1987 Aug;147(8):1413- 1417. (145 patients) 
  86. Brenner M, Ognibene FP, Lack EE, et al. Prognostic factors and life expectancy of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987 Nov;136(5):1199- 1206. (43 patients)
  87. * Safrin S, Finkelstein DM, Feinberg J, et al. Comparison of three regimens for treatment of mild to moderate Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. A double-blind, randomized, trial of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, dapsonetrimethoprim, and clindamycin-primaquine. ACTG 108 Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1996 May 1;124(9):792-802. (Randomized, controlled trial; 181 patients) 
  88. Fishman JA. Treatment of infection due to Pneumocystis carinii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998 Jun;42(6):1309-1314. (Review) 
  89. Conte JE Jr, Chernoff D, Feigal DW Jr, et al. Intravenous or inhaled pentamidine for treating Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 1990 Aug 1;113(3):203-209. (Randomized, controlled trial; 45 patients)
  90. Soo Hoo GW, Mohsenifar Z, Meyer RD. Inhaled or intravenous pentamidine therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 1990 Aug 1;113(3):195-202. (Randomized, controlled trial; 21 patients)
  91. Doern GV, Brueggemann AB, Huynh H, et al. Antimicrobial resistance with Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1997–98. Emerg Infect Dis 1999 Nov-Dec;5(6):757-765. (Multicenter; 1601 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained from 34 U.S. medical centers) 
  92. * Park DR, Sherbin VL, Goodman MS, et al. The Harborview CAP Study Group. The etiology of community-acquired pneumonia at an urban public hospital: influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection and initial severity of illness. J Infect Dis 2001 Aug 1;184(3):268-277. (Prospective) 
  93. Mayaud C, Cadranel J. Tuberculosis in AIDS: past or new problems? Thorax 1999 Jul;54(7): 567-571. (Editorial)
  94. * Walmsley S, Levinton C, Brunton J, et al. A multicenter randomized double-blind placebocontrolled trial of adjunctive corticosteroids in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia complicating the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995 Apr 1;8(4):348-357. (Multicenter, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial; 78 patients)
  95. Simpson DM, Berger JR. Neurologic manifestations of HIV infection. Med Clin North Am 1996 Nov;80(6):1363-1394. (Review) 
  96. Lane HC, Laughon BE, Falloon J, et al. NIH conference. Recent advances in the management of AIDSrelated opportunistic infections. Ann Intern Med 1994 Jun 1;120(11):945-955. (Review; 76 references) 
  97. Luft BJ, Castro KG. An overview of the problem of toxoplasmosis and pneumocystosis in AIDS in the USA: implication for future therapeutic trials. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1991 Mar;10(3): 178-181. (Comparative) 
  98. Kaul M, Garden GA, Lipton SA. Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia. Nature 2001 Apr 19;410(6831):988-994. (Review)
  99. Shor-Posner G. Cognitive function in HIV-1-infected drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000 Oct 1;25 Suppl 1:S70-S73. (Review; 42 references) 
  100. * Porter SB, Sande MA. Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1992 Dec 3;327(23):1643-1648. (Retrospective; 115 patients) 
  101. * Cunningham ET Jr, Margolis TP. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection. N Engl J Med 1998 Jul 23;339(4):236-244. (Review) 
  102. Clark RA, Greer D, Atkinson W, et al. Spectrum of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in 68 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Rev Infect Dis 1990 Sep-Oct;12(5):768-777. (Retrospective; 68 patients) 
  103. Minamoto GY, Rosenberg AS. Fungal infections inpatients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Med Clin North Am 1997 Mar;81(2):381-409. (Review) 
  104. * Rothman RE, Keyl PM, McArthur JC, et al. A decision guideline for emergency department utilization of noncontrast head computed tomography in HIV-infected patients. Acad Emerg Med 1999 Oct;6(10):1010-1019. (Prospective; 110 patients) 
  105. * Gifford AL, Hecht FM. Evaluating HIV-infected patients with headache: who needs computed tomography? Headache 2001 May;41(5):441-448. (Retrospective; 101 patients) 
  106. Graham CB 3rd, Wippold FJ 2nd, Pilgram TK, et al. Screening CT of the brain determined by CD4 count in HIV-positive patients presenting with headache. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2000 Mar;21(3):451-454. (Retrospective; 178 patients) 
  107. * Tso EL, Todd WC, Groleau GA, et al. Cranial computed tomography in the emergency department evaluation of HIV-infected patients with neurologic complaints. Ann Emerg Med 1993 Jul;22(7):1169-1176. (Retrospective; 146 patients)
  108. Walot I, Miller BL, Chang L, et al. Neuroimaging findings in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis 1996 Jun;22(6):906-919. (Review) 
  109. Leport C, Franck J, Chene G, et al. Immunoblotprofile as predictor of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001 May;8(3):579-584. (Randomized, controlled trial; 152 patients) 
  110. Weller IV, Williams IG. ABC of AIDS: Treatment of infections. BMJ 2001 Jun 2;322(7298): 1350-1354. (Review) 
  111. Larsen RA, Leal MA, Chan LS. Fluconazole compared with amphotericin B plus flucytosine for cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS. A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 1990 Aug 1;113(3):183-187. (Randomized, controlled trial; 142 patients) 
  112. * Saag MS, Graybill RJ, Larsen RA, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2000 Apr;30(4):710-718. (Practice guideline) 
  113. Saag MS, Powderly WG, Cloud GA, et al. Comparison of amphotericin B with fluconazole in the treatment of acute AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med 1992 Jan 9;326(2):83-89. (Multicenter, randomized; 194 patients) 
  114. Graybill JR, Sobel J, Saag M, et al. Diagnosis and management of increased intracranial pressure in patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Cooperative Treatment Groups. Clin Infect Dis 2000 Jan;30(1):47-54. (Randomized, controlled trial) 
  115. Witt MD, Lewis RJ, Larsen RA, et al. Identification of patients with acute AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis who can be effectively treated with fluconazole: the role of antifungal susceptibility testing. Clin Infect Dis 1996 Feb;22(2):322-328. (Multicenter; 76 patients) 
  116. Powderly WG. Recent advances in the management of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis 1996 May;22 Suppl 2:S119-S123. (Review) 
  117. No authors listed. The Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS Research Group. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. The ganciclovir implant plus oral ganciclovir versus parenteral cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: The Ganciclovir Cidofovir Cytomegalovirus Retinitis Trial. Am J Ophthalmol 2001 Apr;131(4):457-467. (Randomized, controlled trial; 61 patients) 
  118. Cavert W. Viral infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease. Med Clin North Am 1997 Mar;81(2):411-426. (Review) 
  119. Bonacini M, Young T, Laine L. The causes of esophageal symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus infection. A prospective study of 110 patients. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:1567-1572. (Prospective; 110 patients) 
  120. Wilcox CM, Schwartz DA. A pilot study of oral corticosteroid therapy for idiopathic esophageal ulcerations associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Med 1992 Aug;93(2):131-134. (Prospective; 14 patients) 
  121. Davidson T, Allen-Mersh TG, Miles AJ, et al. Emergency laparotomy in patients with AIDS. Br J Surg 1991 Aug;78(8):924-926. (Retrospective; 28 patients)
  122. Mueller GP, Williams RA. Surgical infections in AIDS patients. Am J Surg 1995 May;169(5A Suppl):34S-38S. (Review)
  123. Parente F, Cernuschi M, Antinori S, et al. Severe abdominal pain in patients with AIDS: frequency,clinical aspects, causes, and outcome. Scand J Gastroenterol 1994 Jun;29(6):511-515. (Retrospective; 458 patients) 
  124. Kelen GD, Green GB, Purcell RH, et al. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C in emergency department patients. N Engl J Med 1992 May 21;326(21):1399-1404. (2523 patients) 
  125. Banshard C, Francis N, Gazzard BG. Investigation of chronic diarrhea in acquired immunodeficiencysyndrome: a prospective study of 155 patients. Gut 1996;39:824-832. (Prospective; 155 patients) 
  126. Glaser JB, Morton-Kute L, Berger SR, et al. Recurrent Salmonella typhimurium bacteremia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1985 Feb;102(2):189-193. (Case report; 8 patients) 
  127. Peters BS, Beck EJ, Anderson S, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS. Patterns of disease, response to therapy and trends in survival. J Infect 1991 Sep;23(2):129-137. (Retrospective; 347 patients) 
  128. Barbut F, Meynard JL, Guiguet M, et al. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: epidemiology and risk factors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997 Nov 1;16(3):176-181. (Retrospective; 67 patients) 
  129. Binderow SR, Shaked AA. Acute appendicitis in patients with AIDS/HIV infection. Am J Surg 1991 Jul;162(1):9-12. (9 patients) 
  130. Barone JE, Gingold BS, Arvanitis ML, et al. Abdominal pain in patients with acquired immune deficiencysyndrome. Ann Surg 1986 Dec;204(6):619-623. (Retrospective; 235 patients) 
  131. 1Savioz D, Lironi A, Zurbuchen P, et al. Acute right iliac fossa pain in acquired immunodeficiency: a comparison between patients with and without acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Br J Surg 1996 May;83(5):644-646. (Retrospective; 17 patients)  
  132. * Sansom H, Seddon B, Padley SP. Clinical utility of abdominal CT scanning in patients with HIV disease. Clin Radiol 1997 Sep;52(9):698-703. (Retrospective; 216 abdominal CT scans) 
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