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<< Management Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In The Emergency Department (Trauma CME)

References

Evidence-based medicine requires a critical appraisal of the literature based upon study methodology and number of subjects. Not all references are equally robust. The findings of a large, prospective, randomized, and blinded trial should carry more weight than a case report.

To help the reader judge the strength of each reference, pertinent information about the study will be included in bold type following the reference, where available. In addition, the most informative references cited in this paper, as determined by the authors, are noted by an asterisk (*) next to the number of the reference.

  1. Legislatures NCoS. Traumatic brain injury legislation. http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/health/traumatic-brain-injury-legislation.aspx, July 2012.
  2. Long JA, Polsky D, Metlay JP. Changes in veterans’ use of outpatient care from 1992 to 2000. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(12):2246-2251. (Survey; 11,645 patients)
  3. DVBIC. Defense and veterans brain injury center. 2012; http://www.dvbic.org/dod-worldwide-numbers-tbi. Accessed July 17, 2012, 2012.
  4. Fear NT, Jones E, Groom M, et al. Symptoms of post-concussional syndrome are non-specifically related to mild traumatic brain injury in UK armed forces personnel on return from deployment in Iraq: an analysis of self-reported data. Psychol Med. 2009;39(8):1379-1387. (Secondary analysis; 5869 patients)
  5. Hoge CW, McGurk D, Thomas JL, et al. Mild traumatic brain injury in US soldiers returning from Iraq. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(5):453-463. (Prospective; 2525 patients)
  6. * McCrory P, Meeuwisse W, Johnston K, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2008. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 Suppl 1:i76-i90. (Consensus statement)
  7. CDC. Injury prevention & control: traumatic brain injury. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/concussion/index.html. Accessed May 19, 2012.
  8. Faul M XL, Wald MM, Coronado VG. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths 2002–2006. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2010.
  9. Langlois JA, Rutland-Brown W, Wald MM. The epidemiology and impact of traumatic brain injury: a brief overview. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006;21(5):375-378. (Review)
  10. * Cantu RC, Register-Mihalik JK. Considerations for return-to-play and retirement decisions after concussion. Pm R. 2011;3(10 Suppl 2):S440-S444. (Consensus paper)
  11. Herring SA, Cantu RC, Guskiewicz KM, et al. Concussion (mild traumatic brain injury) and the team physician: a consensus statement--2011 update. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(12):2412-2422. (Consensus statement)
  12. Faux S, Sheedy J, Delaney R, et al. Emergency department prediction of post-concussive syndrome following mild traumatic brain injury--an international cross-validation study. Brain Inj. 2011;25(1):14-22. (Prospective; 107 patients)
  13. * Pandor A, Goodacre S, Harnan S, et al. Diagnostic management strategies for adults and children with minor head injury: a systematic review and an economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2011;15(27):1-202. (Meta-analysis; 93 studies)
  14. Lannsjo M, af Geijerstam JL, Johansson U, et al. Prevalence and structure of symptoms at 3 months after mild traumatic brain injury in a national cohort. Brain Inj. 2009;23(3):213-219. (Secondary analysis; 1262 patients)
  15. Coronado VG, Xu L, Basavaraju SV, et al. Surveillance for traumatic brain injury-related deaths--United States, 1997-2007. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2011;60(5):1-32. (Secondary analysis; 580,000 patients)
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  25. Committee on Trauma ACoS. ATLS: Advanced Trauma Life Support program for doctors. 8th ed. Chicago: American College of Surgeons; 2008. (Textbook)
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  44. Godbout BJ, Lee J, Newman DH, et al. Yield of head CT in the alcohol-intoxicated patient in the emergency department. Emerg Radiol. 2011;18(5):381-384. (Prospective; 2671 patients)
  45. Jacobs B, Beems T, Stulemeijer M, et al. Outcome prediction in mild traumatic brain injury: age and clinical variables are stronger predictors than CT abnormalities. J Neurotrauma. 2010;27(4):655-668. (Secondary analysis; 2784 patients)
  46. Major J, Reed MJ. A retrospective review of patients with head injury with coexistent anticoagulant and antiplatelet use admitted from a UK emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2009;26(12):871-876. (Retrospective; 399 patients)
  47. Menditto VG, Lucci M, Polonara S, et al. Management of minor head injury in patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy: a prospective study of a 24-hour observation protocol. Ann Emerg Med. 2012. (Prospective; 97 patients)
  48. * Nishijima DK, Offerman SR, Ballard DW, et al. Immediate and delayed traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with head trauma and preinjury warfarin or clopidogrel use. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;59(6):460-468. (Prospective; 1064 patients)
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  50. Compagnone C, d’Avella D, Servadei F, et al. Patients with moderate head injury: a prospective multicenter study of 315 patients. Neurosurgery. 2009;64(4):690-696. (Prospective; 315 patients)
  51. Hoffmann M, Lefering R, Rueger JM, et al. Pupil evaluation in addition to Glasgow Coma Scale components in prediction of traumatic brain injury and mortality. Br J Surg. 2012;99 Suppl 1:122-130. (Secondary analysis; 24,115 patients)
  52. Haukoos JS, Gill MR, Rabon RE, et al. Validation of the Simplified Motor Score for the prediction of brain injury outcomes after trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;50(1):18-24. (Secondary analysis; 21,170 patients)
  53. Thompson DO, Hurtado TR, Liao MM, et al. Validation of the Simplified Motor Score in the out-of-hospital setting for the prediction of outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;58(5):417-425. (Secondary analysis; 19,408 patients)
  54. Lannsjö M, Backheden M, Johansson U, et al. Does head CT scan pathology predict outcome after mild traumatic brain injury? Eur J Neurol. 2012 Jul 20. [Epub ahead of print] (Prospective; 1262 patients)
  55. Stein SC, Spettell C, Young G, et al. Limitations of neurological assessment in mild head injury. Brain Inj. 1993;7(5):425-430. (Prospective; 686 patients)
  56. Bazarian JJ, Atabaki SM. Predicting post-concussive syndrome after minor head injury: a comparison of variables generated by logistic regression and recursive partitioning. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(5):504. (Prospective; 71 patients)
  57. Sheedy J, Harvey E, Faux S, et al. Emergency department assessment of mild traumatic brain injury and the prediction of postconcussive symptoms: a 3-month prospective study. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2009;24(5):333-343. (Prospective; 100 patients)
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  59. Coello AF, Canals AG, Gonzalez JM, et al. Cranial nerve injury after minor head trauma. J Neurosurg. 2010;113(3):547-555. (Prospective; 49 patients)
  60. Catena RD, van Donkelaar P, Chou LS. Different gait tasks distinguish immediate vs. long-term effects of concussion on balance control. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2009;6:25. (Prospective; 60 patients)
  61. Claudia C, Claudia R, Agostino O, et al. Minor head injury in warfarinized patients: indicators of risk for intracranial hemorrhage. J Trauma. 2011;70(4):906-909. (Retrospective; 75 patients)
  62. Lescuyer P, Auer L, Converset V, et al. Comparison of gel-based methods for the detection of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Clin Chim Acta. 2012;413(13-14):1145-1150. (Prospective; 36 patients)
  63. Chan DT, Poon WS, Ip CP, et al. How useful is glucose detection in diagnosing cerebrospinal fluid leak? The rational use of CT and beta-2 transferrin assay in detection of cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Asian J Surg. 2004;27(1):39-42. (Prospective; 18 patients)
  64. Dula DJ, Fales W. The ‘ring sign’: is it a reliable indicator for cerebral spinal fluid? Ann Emerg Med. 1993;22(4):718-720. (Prospective; 16 patients)
  65. Marco CA. Clinical pearls: cerebrospinal fluid double ring sign. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11(1):75. (Clinical pearls)
  66. Masters SJ. Evaluation of head trauma: efficacy of skull films. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1980;135(3):539-547. (Retrospective; 1845 patients)
  67. Leventhal JM, Martin KD, Asnes AG. Fractures and traumatic brain injuries: abuse versus accidents in a US database of hospitalized children. Pediatrics. 2010;126(1):e104-e115. (Secondary analysis; 18,822 patients)
  68. Jagoda AS, Bazarian JJ, Bruns JJ Jr, et al. Clinical policy: neuroimaging and decisionmaking in adult mild traumatic brain injury in the acute setting. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;52:714-748. (Position statement)
  69. Lee H, Wintermark M, Gean AD, et al. Focal lesions in acute mild traumatic brain injury and neurocognitive outcome: CT versus 3T MRI. J Neurotrauma. 2008;25(9):1049-1056. (Prospective; 52 patients)
  70. Yu MK, Ye W. The imaging diagnosis and prognosis assessment of patients with midbrain injury in the acute phase of craniocerebral injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2012;114:317-321. (Prospective; 42 patients)
  71. Ringl H, Schernthaner RE, Schueller G, et al. The skull unfolded: a cranial CT visualization algorithm for fast and easy detection of skull fractures. Radiology. 2010;255(2):553-562. (Retrospective; 200 patients)
  72. Smith-Bindman R, Lipson J, Marcus R, et al. Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(22):2078-2086. (Retrospective; 1119 patients)
  73. Papa L, Stiell IG, Clement CM, et al. Performance of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria for predicting any traumatic intracranial injury on computed tomography in a United States level I trauma center. Acad Emerg Med. 2012;19(1):2-10. (Prospective; 431 patients)
  74. Smits M, Dippel DW, de Haan GG, et al. External validation of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria for CT scanning in patients with minor head injury. JAMA. 2005;294(12):1519-1525. (Prospective; 3181 patients)
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  77. Ro YS, Shin SD, Holmes JF, et al. Comparison of clinical performance of cranial computed tomography rules in patients with minor head injury: a multicenter prospective study. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18(6):597-604. (Prospective; 7131 patients)
  78. Stiell IG, Clement CM, Rowe BH, et al. Comparison of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria in patients with minor head injury. JAMA. 2005;294(12):1511-1518. (Prospective; 1822 patients)
  79. Stiell IG, Clement C, Rowe BH, et al. Multicenter prospective validation of the New Orleans Criteria for CT in minor head injury. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(5):477. (Prospective; 1733 patients)
  80. Stiell I, Lesiuk H, Vandemheen K, et al. Obtaining consensus for the definition of “clinically important” brain injury in the CCC study. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(5):572-573. (Survey; 129 patients)
  81. Stiell IG, Lesiuk H, Brison RJ, et al. How valid is the concept of “clinically unimportant” brain injury in patients with minor head injury? Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8(5):487-488. (Prospective; 94 patients)
  82. * Atzema C, Mower WR, Hoffman JR, et al. Defining “clinically unimportant” CT findings in patients with blunt head trauma. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(5):451. (Secondary analysis; 8374 patients)
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  85. Sherer M, Stouter J, Hart T, et al. Computed tomography findings and early cognitive outcome after traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2006;20(10):997-1005. (Prospective; 89 patients)
  86. Smits M, Houston GC, Dippel DW, et al. Microstructural brain injury in post-concussion syndrome after minor head injury. Neuroradiology. 2010;53(8):553-563. (Prospective; 32 patients)
  87. Lipton ML, Gulko E, Zimmerman ME, et al. Diffusion-tensor imaging implicates prefrontal axonal injury in executive function impairment following very mild traumatic brain injury. Radiology. 2009;252(3):816-824. (Prospective; 40 patients)
  88. Smits M, Dippel DW, Steyerberg EW, et al. Predicting intracranial traumatic findings on computed tomography in patients with minor head injury: the CHIP prediction rule. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(6):397-405. (Prospective; 3181 patients)
  89. Ibanez J, Arikan F, Pedraza S, et al. Reliability of clinical guidelines in the detection of patients at risk following mild head injury: results of a prospective study. J Neurosurg. 2004;100(5):825-834. (Prospective; 1101 patients)
  90. Mena JH SA, Rubiano AM, Peitzman AB, Sperry JL, Gutierrez MI, Puyana JC. Effect of the modified Glasgow Coma Scale score criteria for mild traumatic brain injury on mortality prediction: comparing classic and modified Glasgow Coma Scale score model scores of 13. J Trauma. 2011;71(5):1185-1192. (Secondary analysis; 60,428 patients)
  91. Türedi S HA, Gunduz A, Yandi M. Clinical decision instruments for CT scan in minor head trauma. J Emerg Med. 2008;34(3):253-259. (Prospective; 240 patients)
  92. Fabbri A, Servadei F, Marchesini G, et al. Observational approach to subjects with mild-to-moderate head injury and initial non-neurosurgical lesions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79(10):1180-1185. (Secondary analysis; 865 patients)
  93. Preboth M. AAFP and AAP issue a practice parameter on the management of minor closed head injury in children. Am Fam Physician. 1999;60(9):2698, 2700, 2703-2695. (Position statement)
  94. Reece RM, Sege R. Childhood head injuries: accidental or inflicted? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(1):11-15. (Retrospective; 287 patients)
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  97. Palchak M, Holmes J, Vance C, et al. Clinical decision rules for identifying children at low risk for intracranial injuries after blunt head trauma. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(5):442. (Prospective; 2642 patients)
  98. Pickering A, Harnan S, Fitzgerald P, et al. Clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury: a systematic review. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96(5):414-421. (Systematic review; 79,740 patients)
  99. Osmond MH, Klassen TP, Wells GA, et al. CATCH: a clinical decision rule for the use of computed tomography in children with minor head injury. Cmaj. 2010;182(4):341-348. (Prospective; 3866 patients)
  100. Bressan S, Romanato S, Mion T, et al. Implementation of adapted PECARN decision rule for children with minor head injury in the pediatric emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2012;19(7):801-807. (Prospective; 356 patients)
  101. Rathlev N, Medzon R, Lowery D, et al. Intracranial pathology in the elderly with minor head injury. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(5):478. (Secondary analysis; 1934 patients)
  102. Coronado VG, Thomas KE, Sattin RW, et al. The CDC traumatic brain injury surveillance system: characteristics of persons aged 65 years and older hospitalized with a TBI. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2005;20(3):215-228. (Secondary analysis; 17,657 patients)
  103. Moore MM, Pasquale MD, Badellino M. Impact of age and anticoagulation: need for neurosurgical intervention in trauma patients with mild traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(1):126-130. (Retrospective; 101 patients)
  104. Styrke J, Stalnacke BM, Sojka P, et al. Traumatic brain injuries in a well-defined population: epidemiological aspects and severity. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24(9):1425-1436. (Retrospective; 449 patients)
  105. Gangavati AS, Kiely DK, Kulchycki LK, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in elderly fallers presenting to the emergency department without focal findings. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(8):1470-1474. (Retrospective; 404 patients)
  106. Fortuna GR, Mueller EW, James LE, et al. The impact of preinjury antiplatelet and anticoagulant pharmacotherapy on outcomes in elderly patients with hemorrhagic brain injury. Surgery. 2008;144(4):598-603. (Retrospective; 416 patients)
  107. Franko J, Kish KJ, O’Connell BG, et al. Advanced age and preinjury warfarin anticoagulation increase the risk of mortality after head trauma. J Trauma. 2006;61(1):107-110. (Retrospective; 1493 patients)
  108. Gittleman AM, Ortiz AO, Keating DP, et al. Indications for CT in patients receiving anticoagulation after head trauma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26(3):603-606. (Retrospective; 89 patients)
  109. Brown J, Li J, Levine M, et al. Do anticoagulated patients with minor head trauma need head CT? Results from the COSH [antiCOagulation and the Study of Head injury] phase I trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(5):495. (Retrospective; 124 patients)
  110. Cohen DB, Rinker C, Wilberger JE. Traumatic brain injury in anticoagulated patients. J Trauma. 2006;60(3):553-557. (Secondary analysis; 77 patients)
  111. Rendell S, Batchelor JS. An analysis of predictive markers for intracranial haemorrhage in warfarinised head injury patients. Emerg Med J. 2012. (Retrospective; 82 patients)
  112. Garber ST, Sivakumar W, Schmidt RH. Neurosurgical complications of direct thrombin inhibitors--catastrophic hemorrhage after mild traumatic brain injury in a patient receiving dabigatran. J Neurosurg. 2012;116(5):1093-1096. (Case report)
  113. Vos PE, Battistin L, Birbamer G, et al. EFNS guideline on mild traumatic brain injury: report of an EFNS Task Force. Eur J Neurol. 2002;9(3):207-219. (Review)
  114. Peck KA, Sise CB, Shackford SR, et al. Delayed intracranial hemorrhage after blunt trauma: are patients on preinjury anticoagulants and prescription antiplatelet agents at risk? J Trauma. 2011;71(6):1600-1604. (Retrospective; 500 patients)
  115. Kaen A, Jimenez-Roldan L, Arrese I, et al. The value of sequential computed tomography scanning in anticoagulated patients suffering from minor head injury. J Trauma. 2010;68(4):895-898. (Prospective; 137 patients)
  116. Li J. Admit all anticoagulated head-injured patients? A million dollars versus your dime. You make the call. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;59(6):457-459. (Editorial)
  117. Bonville DJ, Ata A, Jahraus CB, et al. Impact of preinjury warfarin and antiplatelet agents on outcomes of trauma patients. Surgery. 2011;150(4):861-868. (Retrospective; 456 patients)
  118. * Fabbri A, Servadei F, Marchesini G, et al. Predicting intracranial lesions by antiplatelet agents in subjects with mild head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81(11):1275-1279. (Secondary analysis; 14,288 patients)
  119. Lee LK, Dayan PS, Gerardi MJ, et al. Intracranial hemorrhage after blunt head trauma in children with bleeding disorders. J Pediatr. 2011;158(6):1003-1008. (Secondary analysis; 230 patients)
  120. Witmer CM, Raffini LJ, Manno CS. Utility of computed tomography of the head following head trauma in boys with haemophilia. Haemophilia. 2007;13(5):560-566. (Retrospective; 374 patients)
  121. Ivascu FA, Howells GA, Junn FS, et al. Rapid warfarin reversal in anticoagulated patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage reduces hemorrhage progression and mortality. J Trauma. 2005;59(5):1131-1137. (Prospective; 82 patients)
  122. Brown CV, Sowery L, Curry E, et al. Recombinant factor VIIa to correct coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury presenting to outlying facilities before transfer to the regional trauma center. Am Surg. 2012;78(1):57-60. (Retrospective; 23 patients)
  123. Witmer CM, Manno CS, Butler RB, et al. The clinical management of hemophilia and head trauma: a survey of current clinical practice among pediatric hematology/oncology physicians. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;53(3):406-410. (Survey; 252 patients)
  124. Srivastava A, Brewer AK, Mauser-Bunschoten EP, et al. Guidelines for the management of hemophilia. Haemophilia. 2012 July 6. [Epub ahead of print] (Guideline)
  125. Goodnough LT, Shander A. How I treat warfarin-associated coagulopathy in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Blood. 2011;117(23):6091-6099. (Review)
  126. Downey DM, Monson B, Butler KL, et al. Does platelet administration affect mortality in elderly head-injured patients taking antiplatelet medications? Am Surg. 2009;75(11):1100-1103. (Secondary analysis; 328 patients)
  127. Bracken ME, Medzon R, Rathlev NK, et al. Effect of intoxication among blunt trauma patients selected for head computed tomography scanning. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49(1):45-51. (Secondary analysis; 3356 patients)
  128. Stuke L, Diaz-Arrastia R, Gentilello LM, et al. Effect of alcohol on Glasgow Coma Scale in head-injured patients. Ann Surg. 2007;245(4):651-655. (Database analysis; 108,919 patients)
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