Emergency Medicine PracticeEvidence-Based Management Of Caustic Exposures In The Emergency Department
Caustics are common in household and industrial products, and, when ingested, they can pose a significant public health risk. Caustic exposures in adults typically present in the setting of occupational exposure or suicide attempt; exposures in children occur most often by unintentional ingestion. Caustics cause local damage upon contact with tissue surfaces and can lead to systemic toxicity. Endoscopy is recommended in all intentional ingestions (and many unintentional ingestions) to grade injury severity, determine treatment options, and assess prognosis; however, it is generally best performed within 24 hours post ingestion to avoid risk of perforation. Radiography and computed tomography may also be used to visualize injury in certain cases.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine PracticeCongenital Heart Disease In Pediatric Patients: Recognizing The Undiagnosed And Managing Complications In The Emergency Department
Congenital heart disease is the most common form of all congenital malformations and, despite advances in prenatal and newborn screening, it may present undiagnosed to the emergency department. Signs and symptoms of congenital heart disease are variable and often nonspecific, making recognition and treatment challenging. Patient presentations can range from life-threatening shock or cyanosis in a neonate to respiratory distress or failure to thrive in infants. Advances in surgical techniques have improved short- and long-term survival of infants and children with congenital heart disease, but these children are at risk for a variety of complications related to the underlying or surgical anatomy and physiology.
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